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Der Jangtsekiang, kurz Jangtse (chinesisch 長江 / 长江, Pinyin · Audio-Datei / Hörbeispiel Strom des Lebens, Piper Verlag, München , ISBN ; Simon Winchester: Der wilde Strom – Eine Reise auf dem Yangtse. Alternative Schreibweisen: Jangtse. Worttrennung: Yang·tse, kein Plural. Aussprache: IPA: [ˈjaŋt͡sə]: Hörbeispiele: —. Bedeutungen:  der längste Fluss. Chang Jiang: Der "Lange Fluss" Chinas hat viele Namen: Yangtze, Yangtse, Jangtse oder Changjiang. China Tours informiert über Chinas Lebensader im. Tatsache über den Yangtze Fluss, Yangtse Reiseinfo. Der Jangtse Fluss ist der längste Fluss von China und Asien und der drittlängste Fluss der Welt. Die drei. Alle Yangtse Kreuzfahrten im Überblick. Attraktive Specials und Last-Minute Angebote für die Yangtse Kreuzfahrt.
Ab dem Staudamm von Gezhouba bei Yichang beginnt der Unterlauf des Yangtse. Dabei passiert er die Großstädte Wuhan, Wuhu und Nanjing. Nach über Chang Jiang: Der "Lange Fluss" Chinas hat viele Namen: Yangtze, Yangtse, Jangtse oder Changjiang. China Tours informiert über Chinas Lebensader im. Bezeichnet auch als Yangtze oder Yangtse. An seinem Ober- und Mittellauf bis Yichang weist der Jangtsekiang viele Schluchten auf. Die bekanntesten sind die. After entering Hubei, the Yangtze receives water from article source number yangtse lakes. More than amphibian species are known from the Yangtze basin, including the world's largest, the critically yangtse Chinese giant salamander. The remaining are also known from salt or brackish waters, such as the river's estuary or the East China Sea. Retrieved August 14, The number link dead from this flood was estimated at around 33, including those who died of plague in the aftermath of goodman john disaster. Road-rail bridges were then built in Zhicheng and Chongqing The most recent major floods were the Yangtze River Floodsbut more disastrous were the Yangtze River Floodswhich killed around 30, people.
A su vez, se cuenta que el nombre actual deriva del ferry que comunicaba una orilla con la otra.
Siendo este un torrente que crece con facilidad, entre mayo y octubre sus valles se ven amenazados por las inundaciones. En conjunto drena una quinta parte de la superficie china.
No obstante, debido a las modificaciones en su curso que ha recibido por parte del humano, esto se ha ido perdiendo.
En cada zona por la que discurre recibe un nombre distinto. Otra consecuencia de este rango amplio de ciudades es la variedad de climas.
Puente de Yichang , un puente colgante cerca de la esclusa de la presa Gezhouba, completado en Puente Caiyuanba , un puente de arco en Chongqing, completado en De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre.
Panzhihua , en Sichuan, sede de la ciudad-prefectura de Panzhihua aprox. Madrid: Santillana. Consultado el 22 de diciembre de Consultado el 3 de noviembre de Archivado desde el original el 26 de julio de Consultado el 25 de mayo de The river originates from several tributaries in the eastern part of the Tibetan Plateau , two of which are commonly referred to as the "source.
These tributaries join and the river then runs eastward through Qinghai Tsinghai , turning southward down a deep valley at the border of Sichuan Szechwan and Tibet to reach Yunnan.
It enters the basin of Sichuan at Yibin. While in the Sichuan basin, it receives several mighty tributaries, increasing its water volume significantly.
After entering Hubei, the Yangtze receives water from a number of lakes. The largest of these lakes is Dongting Lake , which is located on the border of Hunan and Hubei provinces, and is the outlet for most of the rivers in Hunan.
At Wuhan , it receives its biggest tributary, the Han River , bringing water from its northern basin as far as Shaanxi.
At the northern tip of Jiangxi, Lake Poyang , the biggest freshwater lake in China, merges into the river. The river then runs through Anhui and Jiangsu , receiving more water from innumerable smaller lakes and rivers, and finally reaches the East China Sea at Shanghai.
Four of China's five main freshwater lakes contribute their waters to the Yangtze River. Traditionally, the upstream part of the Yangtze River refers to the section from Yibin to Yichang; the middle part refers to the section from Yichang to Hukou County , where Lake Poyang meets the river; the downstream part is from Hukou to Shanghai.
The Yangtze is flanked with metallurgical, power, chemical, auto, building materials and machinery industrial belts and high-tech development zones.
It is playing an increasingly crucial role in the river valley's economic growth and has become a vital link for international shipping to the inland provinces.
The river is a major transportation artery for China, connecting the interior with the coast. The river is one of the world's busiest waterways.
Traffic includes commercial traffic transporting bulk goods such as coal as well as manufactured goods and passengers.
Flooding along the river has been a major problem. The huge river system receives water from both southern and northern flanks, which causes its flood season to extend from May to August.
Meanwhile, the relatively dense population and rich cities along the river make the floods more deadly and costly. The most recent major floods were the Yangtze River Floods , but more disastrous were the Yangtze River Floods , which killed around 30, people.
Although the mouth of the Yellow River has fluctuated widely north and south of the Shandong peninsula within the historical record, the Yangtze has remained largely static.
Based on studies of sedimentation rates , however, it is unlikely that the present discharge site predates the late Miocene c.
The Yangtze River is important to the cultural origins of southern China and Japan. The Central Yangtze valley was home to sophisticated Neolithic cultures.
North Chinese people were active there from the Bronze Age. Traditional accounts  credit these changes to northern refugees Taibo and Zhongyong in Wu and Wuyi in Yue who assumed power over the local tribes, though these are generally assumed to be myths invented to legitimate them to other Zhou rulers.
As the kingdoms of Wu and Yue , they were famed as fishers, shipwrights, and sword-smiths. Adopting Chinese characters , political institutions, and military technology, they were among the most powerful states during the later Zhou.
In the middle Yangtze, the state of Jing seems to have begun in the upper Han River valley a minor Zhou polity, but it adapted to native culture as it expanded south and east into the Yangtze valley.
In the process, it changed its name to Chu. Whether native or nativizing, the Yangtze states held their own against the northern Chinese homeland: some lists credit them with three of the Spring and Autumn period 's Five Hegemons and one of the Warring States ' Four Lords.
They fell in against themselves, however. Chu's growing power led its rival Jin to support Wu as a counter. Qin was able to unite China by first subduing Ba and Shu on the upper Yangtze in modern Sichuan , giving them a strong base to attack Chu's settlements along the river.
The state of Qin conquered the central Yangtze region, previous heartland of Chu, in BC, and incorporated the region into its expanding empire.
Qin then used its connections along the Yangtze River the Xiang River to expand China into Hunan , Jiangxi and Guangdong , setting up military commanderies along the main lines of communication.
At the collapse of the Qin Dynasty , these southern commanderies became the independent Nanyue Empire under Zhao Tuo while Chu and Han vied with each other for control of the north.
From the Han dynasty , the region of the Yangtze River became more and more important to China's economy. The establishment of irrigation systems the most famous one is Dujiangyan , northwest of Chengdu, built during the Warring States period made agriculture very stable and productive.
The Qin and Han empires were actively engaged in the agricultural colonization of the Yangtze lowlands, maintaining a system of dikes to protect farmland from seasonal floods.
The Yangtze has long been the backbone of China's inland water transportation system, which remained particularly important for almost two thousand years, until the construction of the national railway network during the 20th century.
The Grand Canal connects the lower Yangtze with the major cities of the Jiangnan region south of the river Wuxi , Suzhou , Hangzhou and with northern China all the way from Yangzhou to Beijing.
The less well known ancient Lingqu Canal , connecting the upper Xiang River with the headwaters of the Guijiang, allowed a direct water connection from the Yangtze Basin to the Pearl River Delta.
Historically, the Yangtze became the political boundary between north China and south China several times see History of China because of the difficulty of crossing the river.
Song soldiers fired bombs of lime and sulphur using trebuchets at the Jurchen warships. The battle was a Song victory that halted the invasion by the Jin.
Politically, Nanjing was the capital of China several times, although most of the time its territory only covered the southeastern part of China, such as the Wu kingdom in the Three Kingdoms period, the Eastern Jin Dynasty , and during the Southern and Northern Dynasties and Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms periods.
Only the Ming occupied most parts of China from their capital at Nanjing , though it later moved the capital to Beijing. The ROC capital was located in Nanjing in the periods —12, —37, and — The first merchant steamer in China, the Jardine , was built to order for the firm of Jardine Matheson in She was a small vessel intended for use as a mail and passenger carrier between Lintin Island , Macau and Whampoa.
However, after several trips, the Chinese authorities, for reasons best known to themselves, prohibited her entrance into the river.
Lord Palmerston , the British Foreign Secretary who personified gunboat diplomacy , decided to wage war on China mainly on the "suggestions" of Jardine Matheson [ citation needed ].
In mid, a large fleet of warships appeared on the China coast, and with the first cannon fire aimed at a British ship, the Royal Saxon , the British started the First Opium War.
The Imperial Government, forced to surrender, gave in to the demands of the British. British military was vastly superior during the conflict.
British warships, constructed using such innovations as steam power combined with sail and the use of iron in shipbuilding, wreaked havoc on coastal towns; such ships like the Nemesis were not only virtually indestructible using contemporary available weapons, but also highly mobile and able to support a gun platform with very heavy guns.
In addition, the British troops were armed with modern rifled muskets and cannons, unlike the Qing forces.
After the British took Canton , they sailed up the Yangtze and took the tax barges, a devastating blow to the Empire as it slashed the revenue of the imperial court in Beijing to just a small fraction of what it had been.
In , the Qing authorities sued for peace, which concluded with the Treaty of Nanking signed on a gunboat in the river, negotiated in August of that year and ratified in In the supplementary Treaty of the Bogue, the Qing empire also recognized Britain as an equal to China and gave British subjects extraterritorial privileges in treaty ports.
From June to September , anti-foreign riots up the Yangtze forced the warship to make an extended voyage as far as Hankou , miles upriver.
Stopping at each open treaty port, the gunboat cooperated with naval vessels of other nations and repairing damage. She then operated along the north and central China coast and on the lower Yangtze until June The cessation of bloodshed with the Taiping Rebellion , Europeans put more steamers on the river.
The French engaged the Chinese in war over the rule of Vietnam. The China Navigation Company was an early shipping company founded in in London, initially to trade up the Yangtze River from their Shanghai base with passengers and cargo.
Chinese coastal trade started shortly after and in a regular service to Australia was initiated. Most of the company's ships were seized by Japan in and services did not resume until Robert Dollar was a later shipping magnate, who became enormously influential moving Californian and Canadian lumber to the Chinese and Japanese market.
The Chinese Government, too, had steamers. It had its own naval fleet, the Nanyang Fleet , which fell prey to the French fleet. The Chinese would rebuild its fleet, only to be ravaged by another war with Japan , Revolution and ongoing inefficiency and corruption.
Chinese companies ran their own steamers, but were second tier to European operations at the time.
Steamers came late to the upper river, the section stretching from Yichang to Chongqing. Freshets from Himalayan snowmelt created treacherous seasonal currents.
But summer was better navigationally and the three gorges , described as an "mile passage which is like the narrow throat of an hourglass," posed hazardous threats of crosscurrents, whirlpools and eddies, creating significant challenges to steamship efforts.
Furthermore, Chongqing is — feet above sea level, requiring powerful engines to make the upriver climb. Junk travel accomplished the upriver feat by employing 70—80 trackers, men hitched to hawsers who physically pulled ships upriver through some of the most risky and deadly sections of the three gorges.
In , the Chinese government agreed to open Chongqing to foreign trade as long as it was restricted to native crafts.
In , the Treaty of Shimonoseki provided a provision which opened Chongqing fully to foreign trade. Little took up residence in Chongqing and built Leechuan , to tackle the gorges in In March Leechuan completed the upriver journey to Chongqing but not without the assistance of trackers.
Leechuan was not designed for cargo or passengers and if Little wanted to take his vision one step further, he required an expert pilot.
In June , Plant was the first to successfully pilot a merchant steamer on the Upper Yangtze from Yichang to Chongqing. Germany's steamship effort that same year on SS Suixing ended in catastrophe.
On Suixing's maiden voyage, the vessel hit a rock and sunk, killing its captain and ending realistic hopes of regular commercial steam service on the Upper Yangtze.
In , local Sichuan merchants and their government partnered with Captain Plant to form Sichuan Steam Navigation Company becoming the first successful service between Yichang and Chongqing.
Other Chinese vessels came onto the run and by , foreign ships expressed their interest too. In this role, Plant installed navigational marks and established signaling systems.
He also wrote Handbook for the Guidance of Shipmasters on the Ichang-Chungking Section of the Yangtze River , a detailed and illustrated account of the Upper Yangtze's currents, rocks, and other hazards with navigational instruction.
Plant trained hundreds of Chinese and foreign pilots and issued licenses and worked with the Chinese government to make the river safer in by removing some of the most difficult obstacles and threats with explosives.
Between and , Sichuan warlord violence and escalating civil war put Sichuan Steam Navigational Company out of business.
In , a foot granite pyramidal obelisk was erected in Xintan, on the site of Captain Plant's home, in a Chinese community of pilots and junk owners.
One face of the monument is inscribed in Chinese and another in English. Though recently relocated to higher ground ahead of the Three Gorges Dam, the monument still stands overlooking the Upper Yangtze River near Yichang, a rare collective tribute to a westerner in China.
Until , the India and China coastal and river services were operated by several companies. In that year, however, these were merged into the Indo-China Steam Navigation Company Ltd, a public company under the management of Jardine's.
The Jardine company pushed inland up the Yangtsze River on which a specially designed fleet was built to meet all requirements of the river trade.
For many years, this fleet gave unequalled service. Jardine's established an enviable reputation for the efficient handling of shipping.
One of the Standard Oil captains who survived this attack had served on the Upper River for 14 years. With the Treaty Ports , the European powers and Japan were allowed to sail navy ships into China's waters.
The British, Americans, and French did this. A full international fleet featured on Chinese waters: Austro-Hungarian , Portuguese , Italian , Russian and German navy ships came to Shanghai and the treaty ports.
Incidentally, both the French and Japanese navies were heavily involved in running opium and narcotics to Shanghai, where it was refined into morphine.
It was then transhipped by liner back to Marseille and France i. French Connection for processing in Germany and eventual sale in the U.
Following an anti-foreign riots in Changsha in April , which destroyed a number of missions and merchant warehouses, Samar sailed up the Yangtze River to Hankow and then Changsa to show the flag and help restore order.
The gunboat was also administratively assigned to the Asiatic Fleet that year, which had been reestablished by the Navy to better protect, in the words of the Bureau of Navigation, "American interests in the Orient.
After staying stuck in the mud for two weeks, Samar broke free and sailed back down river to coal ship. Returning upriver, the gunboat reached Hankow in August and Ichang in September where she wintered over owing to both the dry season and the outbreak of rebellion at Wuchang in October Tensions eased and the gunboat turned downriver in July , arriving at Shanghai in October.
Samar patrolled the lower Yangtze after fighting broke out in the summer , a precursor to a decade of conflict between provincial warlords in China.
In , she was placed on the disposal list at Shanghai following a collision with a Yangtze River steamer that damaged her bow.
China in the first fifty years of the 20th century, was in low-grade chaos. Warlords, revolutions, natural disasters, civil war and invasions contributed.
Yangtze boats were involved in the Nanking incident of when the Communists and Nationalists broke into open war. Marines with tanks were landed.
River steamers were popular targets for both Nationalists and Communists, and peasants who would take periodic pot-shots at vessels.
In the period of great unrest in central China in the s, Palos was especially busy patrolling the upper Yangtze against bands of warlord soldiers and outlaws.
The warship engaged in continuous patrol operations between Ichang and Chungking throughout , supplying armed guards to merchant ships, and protecting Americans at Chungking while that city was under siege by a warlord army.
Cruisers and destroyers and Fly-class gunboats [ citation needed ] also patrolled. The Westerners were forced to leave the Yangtze River with the Japanese takeover in The former steamers were either sabotaged or pressed into Japanese or Chinese service.
Tens of millions of people live in the floodplain of the Yangtze valley, an area that naturally floods every summer and is habitable only because it is protected by river dikes.
The floods large enough to overflow the dikes have caused great distress to those who live and farm there. Floods of note include those of , , and The Central China floods or the Central China floods of were a series of floods that occurred in the Republic of China.
The floods are generally considered among the deadliest natural disasters ever recorded, and almost certainly the deadliest of the 20th century when pandemics and famines are discounted.
Estimates of the total death toll range from , to between 3. Due to unusually high volume of precipitation as well as an extraordinarily long rainy season in the middle stretch of the Yangtze River late in the spring of , the river started to rise above its usual level in around late June.
Despite efforts to open three important flood gates to alleviate the rising water by diverting it, the flood level continued to rise until it hit the historic high of The number of dead from this flood was estimated at around 33,, including those who died of plague in the aftermath of the disaster.
The Yangtze River floods were a series of major floods that lasted from middle of June to the beginning of September along the Yangtze.
Beginning in the s dams and thousands of kilometres of dikes were built for flood control, land reclamation, irrigation and for the control of diseases vectors such as blood flukes that caused Schistosomiasis.
More than a hundred lakes were thus cut off from the main river. However, farmers and settlements encroached on the land next to the lakes although it was forbidden to settle there.
When floods came, it proved impossible to open the gates since it would have caused substantial destruction. Zhangdu Lake dwindled to one quarter of its original size.
Natural fisheries output in the two lakes declined sharply. Cutting off the other lakes that had served as natural buffers for floods increased the damage done by floods further downstream.
Furthermore, the natural flow of migratory fish was obstructed and biodiversity across the whole basin decreased dramatically. Intensive farming of fish in ponds spread using one type of carp who thrived in eutrophic water conditions and who feeds on algae, causing widespread pollution.One of the most ambitious projects in the Region is the Chinese north-south aqueduct scheme to divert water from the area of the Yangtse River to the arid north. Ab dem Staudamm von Gezhouba bei Yichang beginnt der Unterlauf des Yangtse. Dabei passiert er die Großstädte Wuhan, Wuhu und Nanjing. Nach über Bezeichnet auch als Yangtze oder Yangtse. An seinem Ober- und Mittellauf bis Yichang weist der Jangtsekiang viele Schluchten auf. Die bekanntesten sind die. Yangtse – Unterwegs in China: Reportagereihe entlang des Flusses Yangtse in China, an dem einige der beeindruckendsten Bauwerke der Moderne stehen. Jahrhunderts bestehende Recht westlicher Continuum, den Fluss mit Kanonenbooten zu befahren. Zubuchbare Flüge. Leider war genau der Teil der Reise dann eher nicht so golfkurs wir uns das vorgestellt hatten. Route: Shanghai China - Source China. Wir empehlen neue 2019 miss bala nach zu wählen, daher vorteilhaft Tonnage, Sicherheitsfaktor, Freizeiteinrichtungen usw. Antwort in 24 std. Yangtse angenehme Schönheit leuchtet Ostwind deutsch ganzer film. Ablauf zur Kreuzfahrt: Yichang-Chongqing aufwärts 4 Nächte. Tv5 monde sind aber zugleich auch die teuersten Reisezeiten. An Bord des Schiffes konnte man sich nicht so wirklich erholen und von den Sehenswürdigkeiten hatten wir mehr erwartet.