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Vhs kassetten

Vhs Kassetten Inhaltsverzeichnis

VHS ist ein von JVC entwickeltes analoges und zuerst in Japan auf den Markt gebrachtes Aufzeichnungs- und Wiedergabesystem für Videorekorder. Diese ist nicht in der Lieferung enthalten. Finde ich auch nicht schlimm. Kann ich daher nur jedem empfahlen, der noch alte VHS-C Kassetten rumliegen hat! Des Weiteren haben VHS-Kassetten einen Arretiermechanismus, der das Drehen der Bandspulen unterbindet, wenn die Kassette nicht im Gerät eingelegt ist. eBay Kleinanzeigen: Vhs Kassetten, Kleinanzeigen - Jetzt finden oder inserieren! eBay Kleinanzeigen - Kostenlos. Einfach. Lokal. Neben VHS-Kassetten finden Sie bei eBay Audiokassetten & DATs, leere CDs, DVDs & Blu-Rays sowie leere MiniDiscs (MDs). Wie.

vhs kassetten

Neben VHS-Kassetten finden Sie bei eBay Audiokassetten & DATs, leere CDs, DVDs & Blu-Rays sowie leere MiniDiscs (MDs). Wie. Videokassetten werden im Restmüll entsorgt, wenn es sich um eine überschaubare Anzahl an VHS-Kassetten handelt. Für größere Mengen empfiehlt sich die. Der richtige Umgang mit VHS-Kassetten. Aktualisiert am Mittwoch, September , Uhr von vinett-video Mediaservice. Nicht jeder hat die Möglichkeit.

Vhs Kassetten - Sie befinden sich hier

Ein anamorphes Bildformat ist möglich, wegen der Inkompatibilität zum Format bei Fernsehern ohne Umschaltung besonders bei kommerziell bespielten Kassetten jedoch unüblich. VHS-Kassetten sind einseitig, können also nicht umgedreht eingeführt werden. Normalerweise bietet die Schutzhülle ausreichend Schutz vor Verunreinigungen. Ratgeber VHS Kassette. Das analoge Video-Home-System von JVC setzte sich bereits in den er Jahren gegen andere Magnetband-Systeme durch. Auch. Viele haben noch alte VHS-Kassetten herumliegen. Dienstleister bieten einen Transfer an. Die Aufnahmen können aber auch in Eigenregie. Videokassetten werden im Restmüll entsorgt, wenn es sich um eine überschaubare Anzahl an VHS-Kassetten handelt. Für größere Mengen empfiehlt sich die. Der richtige Umgang mit VHS-Kassetten. Aktualisiert am Mittwoch, September , Uhr von vinett-video Mediaservice. Nicht jeder hat die Möglichkeit.

Vhs Kassetten - Wovor Sie Ihre Kassetten schützen sollten

Spulen Sie daher am besten Ihre Kassetten nach dem Gebrauch zurück. Preisvorschlag senden. Da der Farbträger zur Magnetaufzeichnung heruntergesetzt wird und das Farbsignal in der noch verfügbaren Bandbreite nur quadraturamplitudenmoduliert und nicht frequenzmoduliert gespeichert werden kann, unterliegt es starken Rauscheinflüssen. EUR 13,90 Versand. Im Laden gibt es ja nur noch die - die bei der Wiedergabe aber nicht so dolle sind. EUR 49,99 1T 1Std. In einem hinreichend starken Magnetfeld können Sie Ihre Aufnahmen ebenfalls unbrauchbar machen, allerdings haben Sie hier keine Gewissheit, und sollten das Ergebnis überprüfen. Selbst fünfstündige Kassetten waren für ca. Hitze ist besonders verheerend, learn more here die Bänder livestreams fussball einer Temperatur von 80 Grad schmelzen. Damit continue reading sich Audio- und Video-Frequenzen. Bei neueren Rekordern wird der Ton film ansehen zusätzlich auch auf die Schrägspuren geschrieben bzw. Darüber hinaus war die Laufzeit der Kassetten länger als bei Betamax.

This is referred to as helical scan recording. To maximize the use of the tape, the video tracks are recorded very close together to each other.

To reduce crosstalk between adjacent tracks on playback, an azimuth recording method is used: The gaps of the two heads are not aligned exactly with the track path.

Instead, one head is angled at plus seven degrees from the track, and the other at minus seven degrees. This results, during playback, in destructive interference of the signal from the tracks on either side of the one being played.

One tape head records an entire picture field. The original VHS specification had only two video heads. Later models implemented at least one more pair of heads, which were used at and optimized for the EP tape speed.

Drums can contain 2, 4, 6 or 8 heads. The high tape-to-head speed created by the rotating head results in a far higher bandwidth than could be practically achieved with a stationary head.

The luminance black and white portion of the video is recorded as a frequency modulated , with a down-converted " color under " chroma color signal recorded directly at the baseband.

Each helical track contains a single field 'even' or 'odd' field, equivalent to half a frame encoded as an analog raster scan , similar to analog TV broadcasts.

The horizontal resolution is lines per picture height, or about lines across a scan line, and the vertical resolution the number of scan lines is the same as the respective analog TV standard for PAL or for NTSC ; usually, somewhat fewer scan lines are actually visible due to overscan.

The frequency modulation of the VHS luminance signal is limited to 3 megahertz, which makes higher resolutions technically impossible even with the highest-quality recording heads and tape materials, but an HQ branded deck includes luminance noise reduction, chroma noise reduction, white clip extension, and improved sharpness circuitry.

The effect was to increase the apparent horizontal resolution of a VHS recording from to analog equivalent to pixels from left-to-right, in digital terminology.

S-VHS was designed for higher resolution, but failed to gain popularity outside Japan because of the high costs of the machines and tapes.

After leaving the head drum, the tape passes over the stationary audio and control head. This records a control track at the bottom edge of the tape, and one or two linear audio tracks along the top edge.

In the original VHS specification, audio was recorded as baseband in a single linear track, at the upper edge of the tape, similar to how an audio compact cassette operates.

The recorded frequency range was dependent on the linear tape speed. S-VHS tapes can give better audio and video quality, because the tapes are designed to have almost twice the bandwidth of VHS at the same speed.

Sound cannot be recorded on a VHS tape without recording a video signal, even in the audio dubbing mode. If there is no video signal to the VCR input, most VCRs will record black video and generate a control track while the sound is being recorded.

Some early VCRs record audio without a control track signal; this is of little use, because the absence of a signal from the control track means that the linear tape speed is irregular during playback.

More sophisticated VCRs offer stereo audio recording and playback. Linear stereo fits two independent channels in the same space as the original mono audiotrack.

While this approach preserves acceptable backward compatibility with monoaural audio heads, the splitting of the audio track degraded the signal's SNR, causing objectionable tape hiss at normal listening volume.

This dynamically boosts the mid-frequency band of the audio program on the recorded medium, improving its signal strength relative to the tape's background noise floor, then attenuates the mid-band during playback.

Dolby B is not a transparent process, and Dolby-encoded program material exhibits an unnatural mid-range emphasis when played on VCRs that are not made to work with this form of noise reduction.

Another option is to use noise reduction similar to that of DBX—that is, by recording with high volume but with a compressed dynamic range.

On playback the decompression will yield original audio; because weaker signals are attenuated, the hiss can also be significantly attenuated.

Has this been done, or is somebody just brainstorming at Wikipedia? High-end consumer recorders take advantage of the linear nature of the audio track, as the audio track could be erased and recorded without disturbing the video portion of the recorded signal.

Hence, "audio dubbing" and "video dubbing", where either the audio or video are re-recorded on tape without disturbing the other , were supported features on prosumer linear video editing -decks.

Without dubbing capability, an audio or video edit could not be done in-place on master cassette, and requires the editing output be captured to another tape, incurring generational loss.

Studio film releases began to emerge with linear stereo audiotracks in From that point onward nearly every home video release by Hollywood featured a Dolby-encoded linear stereo audiotrack.

However, linear stereo was never popular with equipment makers or consumers. Another linear control track , at the tape's lower edge, holds pulses that mark the beginning of every frame of video; these are used to fine-tune the tape speed during playback, so that the high speed rotating heads remained exactly on their helical tracks rather than somewhere between two adjacent tracks known as " tracking ".

The control track is also used to hold index marks , which were normally written at the beginning of each recording session, and can be found using the VCR's index search function: this will fast-wind forward or backward to the n th specified index mark, and resume playback from there.

At times, higher-end VCRs provided functions for the user to manually add and remove these marks [43] [44] — so that, for example, they coincide with the actual start of the television program — but this feature later became hard to find.

By the late s, some high-end VCRs offered more sophisticated indexing. For example, Panasonic's Tape Library system assigned an ID number to each cassette, and logged recording information channel, date, time and optional program title entered by the user both on the cassette and in the VCR's memory for up to recordings with titles.

VHS Hi-Fi audio is achieved by using audio frequency modulation AFM , modulating the two stereo channels L, R on two different frequency-modulated carriers and embedding the combined modulated audio signal pair into the video signal.

To avoid crosstalk and interference from the primary video carrier, VHS's implementation of AFM relied on a form of magnetic recording called depth multiplexing.

The modulated audio carrier pair was placed in the hitherto-unused frequency range between the luminance and the color carrier below 1.

Subsequently, the video head erases and re-records the video signal combined luminance and color signal over the same tape surface, but the video signal's higher center frequency results in a shallower magnetization of the tape, allowing both the video and residual AFM audio signal to coexist on tape.

During playback, VHS Hi-Fi recovers the depth-recorded AFM signal by subtracting the audio head's signal which contains the AFM signal contaminated by a weak image of the video signal from the video head's signal which contains only the video signal , then demodulates the left and right audio channels from their respective frequency carriers.

The end result of the complex process was audio of high fidelity, which was uniformly solid across all tape-speeds EP, LP or SP.

Since JVC had gone through the complexity of ensuring Hi-Fi's backward compatibility with non-Hi-Fi VCRs, virtually all studio home video releases produced after this time contained Hi-Fi audio tracks, in addition to the linear audio track.

The sound quality of Hi-Fi VHS stereo is comparable to some extent to the quality of CD audio, particularly when recordings were made on high-end or professional VHS machines that have a manual audio recording level control.

This high quality compared to other consumer audio recording formats such as compact cassette attracted the attention of amateur and hobbyist recording artists.

Home recording enthusiasts occasionally recorded high quality stereo mixdowns and master recordings from multitrack audio tape onto consumer-level Hi-Fi VCRs.

However, because the VHS Hi-Fi recording process is intertwined with the VCR's video-recording function, advanced editing functions such as audio-only or video-only dubbing are impossible.

A short-lived alternative to the hifi feature for recording mixdowns of hobbyist audio-only projects was a PCM adaptor so that high-bandwidth digital video could use a grid of black-and-white dots on an analog video carrier to give pro-grade digital sounds though DAT tapes made this obsolete.

Some VHS decks also had a "simulcast" switch, allowing users to record an external audio input along with off-air pictures. Some televised concerts offered a stereo simulcast soundtrack on FM radio and as such, events like Live Aid were recorded by thousands of people with a full stereo soundtrack despite the fact that stereo TV broadcasts were some years off especially in regions that adopted NICAM.

Other examples of this included network television shows such as Friday Night Videos and MTV for its first few years in existence.

Likewise, some countries, most notably South Africa , provided alternate language audio tracks for TV programming through an FM radio simulcast.

The considerable complexity and additional hardware limited VHS Hi-Fi to high-end decks for many years.

Even then, most customers were unaware of its significance and merely enjoyed the better audio performance of the newer decks.

Due to the path followed by the video and Hi-Fi audio heads being striped and discontinuous—unlike that of the linear audio track—head-switching is required to provide a continuous audio signal.

While the video signal can easily hide the head-switching point in the invisible vertical retrace section of the signal, so that the exact switching point is not very important, the same is obviously not possible with a continuous audio signal that has no inaudible sections.

Hi-Fi audio is thus dependent on a much more exact alignment of the head switching point than is required for non-HiFi VHS machines.

Misalignments may lead to imperfect joining of the signal, resulting in low-pitched buzzing. Another issue that made VHS Hi-Fi imperfect for music is the inaccurate reproduction of levels softer and louder which are not re-created as the original source.

The audio system both linear and AFM is the same. S-VHS made little impact on the home market, but gained dominance in the camcorder market due to its superior picture quality.

Since VHS-C tapes are based on the same magnetic tape as full-size tapes, they can be played back in standard VHS players using a mechanical adapter, without the need of any kind of signal conversion.

The magnetic tape on VHS-C cassettes is wound on one main spool and uses a gear wheel to advance the tape.

The adapter is mechanical, although early examples were motorized, with a battery. It has an internal hub to engage with the VCR mechanism in the location of a normal full-size tape hub, driving the gearing on the VHS-C cassette.

Also, when a VHS-C cassette is inserted into the adapter, a small swing-arm pulls the tape out of the miniature cassette to span the standard tape path distance between the guide rollers of a full-size tape.

This allows the tape from the miniature cassette to use the same loading mechanism as that from the standard cassette.

Ultimately neither format "won" and both have been superseded by digital high definition equipment. There is also a JVC-designed component digital professional production format known as Digital-S , or officially under the name D9, that uses a VHS form factor tape and essentially the same mechanical tape handling techniques as an S-VHS recorder.

This format is the least expensive format to support a Sel-Sync pre-read for video editing. It has now been superseded by high definition formats.

These devices served the sole purpose of rewinding VHS tapes. Proponents of the rewinders argued that the use of the rewind function on the standard VHS player would lead to wear and tear of the transport mechanism.

The rewinder would rewind the tapes smoothly and also normally do so at a faster rate than the standard rewind function on VHS players.

However some rewinder brands did have some frequent abrupt stops, which occasionally led to tape damage.

Some devices were marketed which allowed a personal computer to use a VHS recorder as a data backup device. VHS can record and play back all varieties of analog television signals in existence at the time VHS was devised.

However, a machine must be designed to record a given standard. Typically, a VHS machine can only handle signals using the same standard as the country it was sold in.

Since the s, dual and multi-standard VHS machines, able to handle a variety of VHS-supported video standards, became more common.

Dedicated multi-standard machines can usually handle all standards listed, and some high-end models could convert the content of a tape from one standard to another on the fly during playback by using a built-in standards converter.

A small number of VHS decks are able to decode closed captions on video cassettes before sending the full signal to the set with the captions.

A smaller number still are able, additionally, to record subtitles transmitted with world standard teletext signals on pre-digital services , simultaneously with the associated program.

S-VHS has a sufficient resolution to record teletext signals with relatively few errors. It uses the Lee font, designed by Leo Weisz.

VHS was popular for long-form content, such as feature films or documentaries, as well as short-play content, such as music videos, in-store videos, teaching videos, distribution of lectures and talks, and demonstrations.

VHS instruction tapes were sometimes included with various products and services, including exercise equipment, kitchen appliances, and computer software.

VHS was the winner of a protracted and somewhat bitter format war during the late s and early s against Sony's Betamax format as well as other formats of the time.

Betamax was widely perceived at the time as the better format, as the cassette was smaller in size, and Betamax offered slightly better video quality than VHS — it had lower video noise, less luma-chroma crosstalk , and was marketed as providing pictures superior to those of VHS.

However, the sticking point for both consumers and potential licensing partners of Betamax was the total recording time. Very high-end Betamax machines still supported recording in the Beta I mode and some in an even higher resolution Beta Is Beta I Super HiBand mode, but at a maximum single-cassette run time of [with an L cassette].

Because Betamax was released more than a year before VHS, it held an early lead in the format war. However, by , United States' Betamax sales had dipped to only percent of all sales.

Some, including Sony's founder Akio Morita, say that it was due to Sony's licensing strategy with other manufacturers, which consistently kept the overall cost for a unit higher than a VHS unit, and that JVC allowed other manufacturers to produce VHS units license-free, thereby keeping costs lower.

The video cassette recorder was a mainstay in television -equipped American and European living rooms for more than twenty years from its introduction in The home television recording market, as well as the camcorder market, has since transitioned to digital recording on solid-state memory cards.

Though In the mids, several retail chains in the United States and Europe announced they would stop selling VHS equipment.

The last known company in the world to manufacture VHS equipment was Funai of Japan, who produced video cassette recorders under the Sanyo brand in China and North America.

Funai ceased production of VHS equipment in July , citing falling sales and a shortage of components. Despite the decline in both VHS players and programming on VHS machines, they are still owned in some households worldwide.

Those who still use or hold on to VHS do so for a number of reasons, including nostalgic value, ease of use in recording, keeping personal videos or home movies , watching content currently exclusive to VHS, and collecting.

Some expatriate communities in the United States also obtain video content from their native countries in VHS format.

Although VHS has been discontinued in the United States, VHS recorders and blank tapes were still sold at stores in other developed countries prior to digital television transitions.

A market for pre-recorded VHS tapes has continued, and some online retailers such as Amazon still sell new and used pre-recorded VHS cassettes of movies and television programs.

None of the major Hollywood studios generally issue releases on VHS, the last major studio film to be released in the format in the United States, other than as part of special marketing promotions, was A History of Violence in However, there have been a few exceptions.

For example, The House of the Devil was released on VHS in as an Amazon-exclusive deal, in keeping with the film's intent to mimic s horror films.

Though occasionally showing compression artifacts and color banding that are common discrepancies in digital media, the durability and longevity of a VCD depends on the production quality of the disc, and its handling.

The data stored digitally on a VCD theoretically does not degrade in the analog sense like tape. In the disc player, there is no physical contact made with either the data or label sides.

When handled properly, a VCD will last a long time. Since a VCD can hold only 74 minutes of video, a movie exceeding that mark has to be divided into two or more discs.

Despite DVD's better quality typical horizontal resolution of versus lines per picture height , and the availability of standalone DVD recorders, VHS is still used in home recording of video content.

The commercial success of DVD recording and re-writing has been hindered by a number of factors including:.

High-capacity digital recording systems are also gaining in popularity with home users. These types of systems come in several form factors:.

These types of systems provide users with a no-maintenance solution for capturing video content.

Customers of subscriber-based TV generally receive electronic program guides, enabling one-touch setup of a recording schedule. Hard disk—based systems allow for many hours of recording without user-maintenance.

Often considered an important medium of film history, the influence of VHS on art and cinema was highlighted in a retrospective staged at the Museum of Arts and Design in The documentary film Rewind This!

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the video format. For other uses, see VHS disambiguation.

Consumer-level analog video tape recording and cassette form factor standard. This article needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

Further information: Video tape recorder. Play media. Main article: VHS-C. Main article: Digital-S.

Main article: Videotape format war. This section has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.

Learn how and when to remove these template messages. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.

April The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject.

You may improve this section , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new section, as appropriate.

July Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: Video CD. See also: DVD-Video. See also: Digital video recorder. Page cites the original name as "Video Home System", from the original source, an article by Yuma Shiraishi, one of its inventors.

New long-play video-cassette recorders". The effect was to increase the apparent horizontal resolution of a VHS recording from to analog equivalent to pixels from left-to-right, in digital terminology.

S-VHS was designed for higher resolution, but failed to gain popularity outside Japan because of the high costs of the machines and tapes.

After leaving the head drum, the tape passes over the stationary audio and control head. This records a control track at the bottom edge of the tape, and one or two linear audio tracks along the top edge.

In the original VHS specification, audio was recorded as baseband in a single linear track, at the upper edge of the tape, similar to how an audio compact cassette operates.

The recorded frequency range was dependent on the linear tape speed. S-VHS tapes can give better audio and video quality, because the tapes are designed to have almost twice the bandwidth of VHS at the same speed.

Sound cannot be recorded on a VHS tape without recording a video signal, even in the audio dubbing mode. If there is no video signal to the VCR input, most VCRs will record black video and generate a control track while the sound is being recorded.

Some early VCRs record audio without a control track signal; this is of little use, because the absence of a signal from the control track means that the linear tape speed is irregular during playback.

More sophisticated VCRs offer stereo audio recording and playback. Linear stereo fits two independent channels in the same space as the original mono audiotrack.

While this approach preserves acceptable backward compatibility with monoaural audio heads, the splitting of the audio track degraded the signal's SNR, causing objectionable tape hiss at normal listening volume.

This dynamically boosts the mid-frequency band of the audio program on the recorded medium, improving its signal strength relative to the tape's background noise floor, then attenuates the mid-band during playback.

Dolby B is not a transparent process, and Dolby-encoded program material exhibits an unnatural mid-range emphasis when played on VCRs that are not made to work with this form of noise reduction.

Another option is to use noise reduction similar to that of DBX—that is, by recording with high volume but with a compressed dynamic range.

On playback the decompression will yield original audio; because weaker signals are attenuated, the hiss can also be significantly attenuated.

Has this been done, or is somebody just brainstorming at Wikipedia? High-end consumer recorders take advantage of the linear nature of the audio track, as the audio track could be erased and recorded without disturbing the video portion of the recorded signal.

Hence, "audio dubbing" and "video dubbing", where either the audio or video are re-recorded on tape without disturbing the other , were supported features on prosumer linear video editing -decks.

Without dubbing capability, an audio or video edit could not be done in-place on master cassette, and requires the editing output be captured to another tape, incurring generational loss.

Studio film releases began to emerge with linear stereo audiotracks in From that point onward nearly every home video release by Hollywood featured a Dolby-encoded linear stereo audiotrack.

However, linear stereo was never popular with equipment makers or consumers. Another linear control track , at the tape's lower edge, holds pulses that mark the beginning of every frame of video; these are used to fine-tune the tape speed during playback, so that the high speed rotating heads remained exactly on their helical tracks rather than somewhere between two adjacent tracks known as " tracking ".

The control track is also used to hold index marks , which were normally written at the beginning of each recording session, and can be found using the VCR's index search function: this will fast-wind forward or backward to the n th specified index mark, and resume playback from there.

At times, higher-end VCRs provided functions for the user to manually add and remove these marks [43] [44] — so that, for example, they coincide with the actual start of the television program — but this feature later became hard to find.

By the late s, some high-end VCRs offered more sophisticated indexing. For example, Panasonic's Tape Library system assigned an ID number to each cassette, and logged recording information channel, date, time and optional program title entered by the user both on the cassette and in the VCR's memory for up to recordings with titles.

VHS Hi-Fi audio is achieved by using audio frequency modulation AFM , modulating the two stereo channels L, R on two different frequency-modulated carriers and embedding the combined modulated audio signal pair into the video signal.

To avoid crosstalk and interference from the primary video carrier, VHS's implementation of AFM relied on a form of magnetic recording called depth multiplexing.

The modulated audio carrier pair was placed in the hitherto-unused frequency range between the luminance and the color carrier below 1.

Subsequently, the video head erases and re-records the video signal combined luminance and color signal over the same tape surface, but the video signal's higher center frequency results in a shallower magnetization of the tape, allowing both the video and residual AFM audio signal to coexist on tape.

During playback, VHS Hi-Fi recovers the depth-recorded AFM signal by subtracting the audio head's signal which contains the AFM signal contaminated by a weak image of the video signal from the video head's signal which contains only the video signal , then demodulates the left and right audio channels from their respective frequency carriers.

The end result of the complex process was audio of high fidelity, which was uniformly solid across all tape-speeds EP, LP or SP.

Since JVC had gone through the complexity of ensuring Hi-Fi's backward compatibility with non-Hi-Fi VCRs, virtually all studio home video releases produced after this time contained Hi-Fi audio tracks, in addition to the linear audio track.

The sound quality of Hi-Fi VHS stereo is comparable to some extent to the quality of CD audio, particularly when recordings were made on high-end or professional VHS machines that have a manual audio recording level control.

This high quality compared to other consumer audio recording formats such as compact cassette attracted the attention of amateur and hobbyist recording artists.

Home recording enthusiasts occasionally recorded high quality stereo mixdowns and master recordings from multitrack audio tape onto consumer-level Hi-Fi VCRs.

However, because the VHS Hi-Fi recording process is intertwined with the VCR's video-recording function, advanced editing functions such as audio-only or video-only dubbing are impossible.

A short-lived alternative to the hifi feature for recording mixdowns of hobbyist audio-only projects was a PCM adaptor so that high-bandwidth digital video could use a grid of black-and-white dots on an analog video carrier to give pro-grade digital sounds though DAT tapes made this obsolete.

Some VHS decks also had a "simulcast" switch, allowing users to record an external audio input along with off-air pictures.

Some televised concerts offered a stereo simulcast soundtrack on FM radio and as such, events like Live Aid were recorded by thousands of people with a full stereo soundtrack despite the fact that stereo TV broadcasts were some years off especially in regions that adopted NICAM.

Other examples of this included network television shows such as Friday Night Videos and MTV for its first few years in existence.

Likewise, some countries, most notably South Africa , provided alternate language audio tracks for TV programming through an FM radio simulcast.

The considerable complexity and additional hardware limited VHS Hi-Fi to high-end decks for many years. Even then, most customers were unaware of its significance and merely enjoyed the better audio performance of the newer decks.

Due to the path followed by the video and Hi-Fi audio heads being striped and discontinuous—unlike that of the linear audio track—head-switching is required to provide a continuous audio signal.

While the video signal can easily hide the head-switching point in the invisible vertical retrace section of the signal, so that the exact switching point is not very important, the same is obviously not possible with a continuous audio signal that has no inaudible sections.

Hi-Fi audio is thus dependent on a much more exact alignment of the head switching point than is required for non-HiFi VHS machines.

Misalignments may lead to imperfect joining of the signal, resulting in low-pitched buzzing. Another issue that made VHS Hi-Fi imperfect for music is the inaccurate reproduction of levels softer and louder which are not re-created as the original source.

The audio system both linear and AFM is the same. S-VHS made little impact on the home market, but gained dominance in the camcorder market due to its superior picture quality.

Since VHS-C tapes are based on the same magnetic tape as full-size tapes, they can be played back in standard VHS players using a mechanical adapter, without the need of any kind of signal conversion.

The magnetic tape on VHS-C cassettes is wound on one main spool and uses a gear wheel to advance the tape. The adapter is mechanical, although early examples were motorized, with a battery.

It has an internal hub to engage with the VCR mechanism in the location of a normal full-size tape hub, driving the gearing on the VHS-C cassette.

Also, when a VHS-C cassette is inserted into the adapter, a small swing-arm pulls the tape out of the miniature cassette to span the standard tape path distance between the guide rollers of a full-size tape.

This allows the tape from the miniature cassette to use the same loading mechanism as that from the standard cassette.

Ultimately neither format "won" and both have been superseded by digital high definition equipment. There is also a JVC-designed component digital professional production format known as Digital-S , or officially under the name D9, that uses a VHS form factor tape and essentially the same mechanical tape handling techniques as an S-VHS recorder.

This format is the least expensive format to support a Sel-Sync pre-read for video editing. It has now been superseded by high definition formats.

These devices served the sole purpose of rewinding VHS tapes. Proponents of the rewinders argued that the use of the rewind function on the standard VHS player would lead to wear and tear of the transport mechanism.

The rewinder would rewind the tapes smoothly and also normally do so at a faster rate than the standard rewind function on VHS players.

However some rewinder brands did have some frequent abrupt stops, which occasionally led to tape damage.

Some devices were marketed which allowed a personal computer to use a VHS recorder as a data backup device.

VHS can record and play back all varieties of analog television signals in existence at the time VHS was devised.

However, a machine must be designed to record a given standard. Typically, a VHS machine can only handle signals using the same standard as the country it was sold in.

Since the s, dual and multi-standard VHS machines, able to handle a variety of VHS-supported video standards, became more common.

Dedicated multi-standard machines can usually handle all standards listed, and some high-end models could convert the content of a tape from one standard to another on the fly during playback by using a built-in standards converter.

A small number of VHS decks are able to decode closed captions on video cassettes before sending the full signal to the set with the captions.

A smaller number still are able, additionally, to record subtitles transmitted with world standard teletext signals on pre-digital services , simultaneously with the associated program.

S-VHS has a sufficient resolution to record teletext signals with relatively few errors. It uses the Lee font, designed by Leo Weisz. VHS was popular for long-form content, such as feature films or documentaries, as well as short-play content, such as music videos, in-store videos, teaching videos, distribution of lectures and talks, and demonstrations.

VHS instruction tapes were sometimes included with various products and services, including exercise equipment, kitchen appliances, and computer software.

VHS was the winner of a protracted and somewhat bitter format war during the late s and early s against Sony's Betamax format as well as other formats of the time.

Betamax was widely perceived at the time as the better format, as the cassette was smaller in size, and Betamax offered slightly better video quality than VHS — it had lower video noise, less luma-chroma crosstalk , and was marketed as providing pictures superior to those of VHS.

However, the sticking point for both consumers and potential licensing partners of Betamax was the total recording time.

Very high-end Betamax machines still supported recording in the Beta I mode and some in an even higher resolution Beta Is Beta I Super HiBand mode, but at a maximum single-cassette run time of [with an L cassette].

Because Betamax was released more than a year before VHS, it held an early lead in the format war.

However, by , United States' Betamax sales had dipped to only percent of all sales. Some, including Sony's founder Akio Morita, say that it was due to Sony's licensing strategy with other manufacturers, which consistently kept the overall cost for a unit higher than a VHS unit, and that JVC allowed other manufacturers to produce VHS units license-free, thereby keeping costs lower.

The video cassette recorder was a mainstay in television -equipped American and European living rooms for more than twenty years from its introduction in The home television recording market, as well as the camcorder market, has since transitioned to digital recording on solid-state memory cards.

Though In the mids, several retail chains in the United States and Europe announced they would stop selling VHS equipment.

The last known company in the world to manufacture VHS equipment was Funai of Japan, who produced video cassette recorders under the Sanyo brand in China and North America.

Funai ceased production of VHS equipment in July , citing falling sales and a shortage of components. Despite the decline in both VHS players and programming on VHS machines, they are still owned in some households worldwide.

Those who still use or hold on to VHS do so for a number of reasons, including nostalgic value, ease of use in recording, keeping personal videos or home movies , watching content currently exclusive to VHS, and collecting.

Some expatriate communities in the United States also obtain video content from their native countries in VHS format. Although VHS has been discontinued in the United States, VHS recorders and blank tapes were still sold at stores in other developed countries prior to digital television transitions.

A market for pre-recorded VHS tapes has continued, and some online retailers such as Amazon still sell new and used pre-recorded VHS cassettes of movies and television programs.

None of the major Hollywood studios generally issue releases on VHS, the last major studio film to be released in the format in the United States, other than as part of special marketing promotions, was A History of Violence in However, there have been a few exceptions.

For example, The House of the Devil was released on VHS in as an Amazon-exclusive deal, in keeping with the film's intent to mimic s horror films.

Though occasionally showing compression artifacts and color banding that are common discrepancies in digital media, the durability and longevity of a VCD depends on the production quality of the disc, and its handling.

The data stored digitally on a VCD theoretically does not degrade in the analog sense like tape. In the disc player, there is no physical contact made with either the data or label sides.

When handled properly, a VCD will last a long time. Since a VCD can hold only 74 minutes of video, a movie exceeding that mark has to be divided into two or more discs.

Despite DVD's better quality typical horizontal resolution of versus lines per picture height , and the availability of standalone DVD recorders, VHS is still used in home recording of video content.

The commercial success of DVD recording and re-writing has been hindered by a number of factors including:.

High-capacity digital recording systems are also gaining in popularity with home users. These types of systems come in several form factors:.

These types of systems provide users with a no-maintenance solution for capturing video content.

Customers of subscriber-based TV generally receive electronic program guides, enabling one-touch setup of a recording schedule.

Hard disk—based systems allow for many hours of recording without user-maintenance. Often considered an important medium of film history, the influence of VHS on art and cinema was highlighted in a retrospective staged at the Museum of Arts and Design in The documentary film Rewind This!

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the video format. For other uses, see VHS disambiguation.

Consumer-level analog video tape recording and cassette form factor standard. This article needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

Further information: Video tape recorder. Play media. Main article: VHS-C. Main article: Digital-S. Main article: Videotape format war.

This section has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages.

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April The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject.

You may improve this section , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new section, as appropriate. July Learn how and when to remove this template message.

See also: Video CD. See also: DVD-Video. See also: Digital video recorder. Page cites the original name as "Video Home System", from the original source, an article by Yuma Shiraishi, one of its inventors.

New long-play video-cassette recorders". Popular Science. Times Mirror Magazine inc. Retrieved July 11, Retrieved University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.

Archived from the original on July 22, Retrieved November 11, The Washington Post. August 28, The Los Angeles Times.

The Washington Times. Washington, D. June 20, Ars Technica.

S-VHS was designed for higher resolution, but failed to gain popularity outside Japan because of the high costs of the machines and tapes. In order to avoid confusion, manufacturers indicate the playing time in minutes that can be expected for the market the tape is sold in. In ard programm live, the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry MITIgo here to avoid consumer confusion click here, attempted to force the Japanese video industry to standardize on just one home video recording format. A smaller number still are able, additionally, learn more here record subtitles transmitted with world standard teletext signals click pre-digital servicessimultaneously with the associated the vow stream. American Library Association. S-VHS made little impact on the home market, but gained dominance in the camcorder market due to its superior picture quality. Continue reading helical track contains a single field 'even' or 'odd' field, equivalent to half a frame encoded as an analog raster scansimilar to analog TV broadcasts.

Because the width of VHS-C is narrower than a full-size VHS cassette and does not align with the full-size end of tape sensors, the adapter has a guide roller swing arm to pull tape out of the VHS-C cartridge out to the far right edge where it would normally be located in a full-size cassette.

When the VHS-C cartridge is to be removed from the adapter, a geared retraction system pulls in the excess loose tape when the swing arm retracts.

The arrival on the market of inexpensive S-VHS-C camcorders led to the inclusion on many modern VCRs of a feature known as SQPB, or SuperVHS Quasi-PlayBack, but did not make a significant impact on the market as the arrival of MiniDV as a consumer standard made low-cost, digital, near- broadcast quality video widely available to consumers, and rendered analog camcorders largely obsolete.

Compared with Video8, VHS-C had similar video quality but a shorter run time, 90 versus 30 minutes at SP speed for standard cassettes , versus 60 for longer-running modes.

Similarly, Video8 spawned a minute version of the cassette minutes in long play. Although Video8 acquired a digital variant, Digital8 , D-VHS was never adapted to a compact format, as the consumer camcorder industry moved on to small-format MiniDV tapes, then hard-drive- and DVD-based machines, and then solid-state storage.

Early VHS-C cassettes did not have a mechanism to ratchet or lock the supply reel when not in use, making them susceptible to spilling tape inside the shell.

Consequently, manufacturers placed a label on their camcorders and adapters to warn the user to check that the tape is not slackened before inserting a cassette.

The user could dissipate the slack by manually turning the take-up gear. Later cassettes corrected this problem by adding teeth to the supply reel to lock it in place when no upward pressure is applied.

The spindle of the camcorder or VCR supplies pressure to float the reel's turntable and teeth above the shell, allowing it to rotate freely when in use.

If a tape with slack was loaded into a VHS-C adapter, the tape could sit on the wrong side of a tape guide when the adapter loaded.

The result would be a tape and cassette combination that would not play in a video deck, and would damage the tape to some extent when being unloaded.

Instead, one head is angled at plus seven degrees from the track, and the other at minus seven degrees. This results, during playback, in destructive interference of the signal from the tracks on either side of the one being played.

One tape head records an entire picture field. The original VHS specification had only two video heads. Later models implemented at least one more pair of heads, which were used at and optimized for the EP tape speed.

Drums can contain 2, 4, 6 or 8 heads. The high tape-to-head speed created by the rotating head results in a far higher bandwidth than could be practically achieved with a stationary head.

The luminance black and white portion of the video is recorded as a frequency modulated , with a down-converted " color under " chroma color signal recorded directly at the baseband.

Each helical track contains a single field 'even' or 'odd' field, equivalent to half a frame encoded as an analog raster scan , similar to analog TV broadcasts.

The horizontal resolution is lines per picture height, or about lines across a scan line, and the vertical resolution the number of scan lines is the same as the respective analog TV standard for PAL or for NTSC ; usually, somewhat fewer scan lines are actually visible due to overscan.

The frequency modulation of the VHS luminance signal is limited to 3 megahertz, which makes higher resolutions technically impossible even with the highest-quality recording heads and tape materials, but an HQ branded deck includes luminance noise reduction, chroma noise reduction, white clip extension, and improved sharpness circuitry.

The effect was to increase the apparent horizontal resolution of a VHS recording from to analog equivalent to pixels from left-to-right, in digital terminology.

S-VHS was designed for higher resolution, but failed to gain popularity outside Japan because of the high costs of the machines and tapes.

After leaving the head drum, the tape passes over the stationary audio and control head. This records a control track at the bottom edge of the tape, and one or two linear audio tracks along the top edge.

In the original VHS specification, audio was recorded as baseband in a single linear track, at the upper edge of the tape, similar to how an audio compact cassette operates.

The recorded frequency range was dependent on the linear tape speed. S-VHS tapes can give better audio and video quality, because the tapes are designed to have almost twice the bandwidth of VHS at the same speed.

Sound cannot be recorded on a VHS tape without recording a video signal, even in the audio dubbing mode. If there is no video signal to the VCR input, most VCRs will record black video and generate a control track while the sound is being recorded.

Some early VCRs record audio without a control track signal; this is of little use, because the absence of a signal from the control track means that the linear tape speed is irregular during playback.

More sophisticated VCRs offer stereo audio recording and playback. Linear stereo fits two independent channels in the same space as the original mono audiotrack.

While this approach preserves acceptable backward compatibility with monoaural audio heads, the splitting of the audio track degraded the signal's SNR, causing objectionable tape hiss at normal listening volume.

This dynamically boosts the mid-frequency band of the audio program on the recorded medium, improving its signal strength relative to the tape's background noise floor, then attenuates the mid-band during playback.

Dolby B is not a transparent process, and Dolby-encoded program material exhibits an unnatural mid-range emphasis when played on VCRs that are not made to work with this form of noise reduction.

Another option is to use noise reduction similar to that of DBX—that is, by recording with high volume but with a compressed dynamic range.

On playback the decompression will yield original audio; because weaker signals are attenuated, the hiss can also be significantly attenuated.

Has this been done, or is somebody just brainstorming at Wikipedia? High-end consumer recorders take advantage of the linear nature of the audio track, as the audio track could be erased and recorded without disturbing the video portion of the recorded signal.

Hence, "audio dubbing" and "video dubbing", where either the audio or video are re-recorded on tape without disturbing the other , were supported features on prosumer linear video editing -decks.

Without dubbing capability, an audio or video edit could not be done in-place on master cassette, and requires the editing output be captured to another tape, incurring generational loss.

Studio film releases began to emerge with linear stereo audiotracks in From that point onward nearly every home video release by Hollywood featured a Dolby-encoded linear stereo audiotrack.

However, linear stereo was never popular with equipment makers or consumers. Another linear control track , at the tape's lower edge, holds pulses that mark the beginning of every frame of video; these are used to fine-tune the tape speed during playback, so that the high speed rotating heads remained exactly on their helical tracks rather than somewhere between two adjacent tracks known as " tracking ".

The control track is also used to hold index marks , which were normally written at the beginning of each recording session, and can be found using the VCR's index search function: this will fast-wind forward or backward to the n th specified index mark, and resume playback from there.

At times, higher-end VCRs provided functions for the user to manually add and remove these marks [43] [44] — so that, for example, they coincide with the actual start of the television program — but this feature later became hard to find.

By the late s, some high-end VCRs offered more sophisticated indexing. For example, Panasonic's Tape Library system assigned an ID number to each cassette, and logged recording information channel, date, time and optional program title entered by the user both on the cassette and in the VCR's memory for up to recordings with titles.

VHS Hi-Fi audio is achieved by using audio frequency modulation AFM , modulating the two stereo channels L, R on two different frequency-modulated carriers and embedding the combined modulated audio signal pair into the video signal.

To avoid crosstalk and interference from the primary video carrier, VHS's implementation of AFM relied on a form of magnetic recording called depth multiplexing.

The modulated audio carrier pair was placed in the hitherto-unused frequency range between the luminance and the color carrier below 1.

Subsequently, the video head erases and re-records the video signal combined luminance and color signal over the same tape surface, but the video signal's higher center frequency results in a shallower magnetization of the tape, allowing both the video and residual AFM audio signal to coexist on tape.

During playback, VHS Hi-Fi recovers the depth-recorded AFM signal by subtracting the audio head's signal which contains the AFM signal contaminated by a weak image of the video signal from the video head's signal which contains only the video signal , then demodulates the left and right audio channels from their respective frequency carriers.

The end result of the complex process was audio of high fidelity, which was uniformly solid across all tape-speeds EP, LP or SP. Since JVC had gone through the complexity of ensuring Hi-Fi's backward compatibility with non-Hi-Fi VCRs, virtually all studio home video releases produced after this time contained Hi-Fi audio tracks, in addition to the linear audio track.

The sound quality of Hi-Fi VHS stereo is comparable to some extent to the quality of CD audio, particularly when recordings were made on high-end or professional VHS machines that have a manual audio recording level control.

This high quality compared to other consumer audio recording formats such as compact cassette attracted the attention of amateur and hobbyist recording artists.

Home recording enthusiasts occasionally recorded high quality stereo mixdowns and master recordings from multitrack audio tape onto consumer-level Hi-Fi VCRs.

However, because the VHS Hi-Fi recording process is intertwined with the VCR's video-recording function, advanced editing functions such as audio-only or video-only dubbing are impossible.

A short-lived alternative to the hifi feature for recording mixdowns of hobbyist audio-only projects was a PCM adaptor so that high-bandwidth digital video could use a grid of black-and-white dots on an analog video carrier to give pro-grade digital sounds though DAT tapes made this obsolete.

Some VHS decks also had a "simulcast" switch, allowing users to record an external audio input along with off-air pictures.

Some televised concerts offered a stereo simulcast soundtrack on FM radio and as such, events like Live Aid were recorded by thousands of people with a full stereo soundtrack despite the fact that stereo TV broadcasts were some years off especially in regions that adopted NICAM.

Other examples of this included network television shows such as Friday Night Videos and MTV for its first few years in existence.

Likewise, some countries, most notably South Africa , provided alternate language audio tracks for TV programming through an FM radio simulcast.

The considerable complexity and additional hardware limited VHS Hi-Fi to high-end decks for many years.

Even then, most customers were unaware of its significance and merely enjoyed the better audio performance of the newer decks.

Due to the path followed by the video and Hi-Fi audio heads being striped and discontinuous—unlike that of the linear audio track—head-switching is required to provide a continuous audio signal.

While the video signal can easily hide the head-switching point in the invisible vertical retrace section of the signal, so that the exact switching point is not very important, the same is obviously not possible with a continuous audio signal that has no inaudible sections.

Hi-Fi audio is thus dependent on a much more exact alignment of the head switching point than is required for non-HiFi VHS machines. Misalignments may lead to imperfect joining of the signal, resulting in low-pitched buzzing.

Another issue that made VHS Hi-Fi imperfect for music is the inaccurate reproduction of levels softer and louder which are not re-created as the original source.

The audio system both linear and AFM is the same. S-VHS made little impact on the home market, but gained dominance in the camcorder market due to its superior picture quality.

Since VHS-C tapes are based on the same magnetic tape as full-size tapes, they can be played back in standard VHS players using a mechanical adapter, without the need of any kind of signal conversion.

The magnetic tape on VHS-C cassettes is wound on one main spool and uses a gear wheel to advance the tape. The adapter is mechanical, although early examples were motorized, with a battery.

It has an internal hub to engage with the VCR mechanism in the location of a normal full-size tape hub, driving the gearing on the VHS-C cassette.

Also, when a VHS-C cassette is inserted into the adapter, a small swing-arm pulls the tape out of the miniature cassette to span the standard tape path distance between the guide rollers of a full-size tape.

This allows the tape from the miniature cassette to use the same loading mechanism as that from the standard cassette.

Ultimately neither format "won" and both have been superseded by digital high definition equipment.

There is also a JVC-designed component digital professional production format known as Digital-S , or officially under the name D9, that uses a VHS form factor tape and essentially the same mechanical tape handling techniques as an S-VHS recorder.

This format is the least expensive format to support a Sel-Sync pre-read for video editing. It has now been superseded by high definition formats.

These devices served the sole purpose of rewinding VHS tapes. Proponents of the rewinders argued that the use of the rewind function on the standard VHS player would lead to wear and tear of the transport mechanism.

The rewinder would rewind the tapes smoothly and also normally do so at a faster rate than the standard rewind function on VHS players.

However some rewinder brands did have some frequent abrupt stops, which occasionally led to tape damage. Some devices were marketed which allowed a personal computer to use a VHS recorder as a data backup device.

VHS can record and play back all varieties of analog television signals in existence at the time VHS was devised. However, a machine must be designed to record a given standard.

Typically, a VHS machine can only handle signals using the same standard as the country it was sold in. Since the s, dual and multi-standard VHS machines, able to handle a variety of VHS-supported video standards, became more common.

Dedicated multi-standard machines can usually handle all standards listed, and some high-end models could convert the content of a tape from one standard to another on the fly during playback by using a built-in standards converter.

A small number of VHS decks are able to decode closed captions on video cassettes before sending the full signal to the set with the captions.

A smaller number still are able, additionally, to record subtitles transmitted with world standard teletext signals on pre-digital services , simultaneously with the associated program.

S-VHS has a sufficient resolution to record teletext signals with relatively few errors. It uses the Lee font, designed by Leo Weisz. VHS was popular for long-form content, such as feature films or documentaries, as well as short-play content, such as music videos, in-store videos, teaching videos, distribution of lectures and talks, and demonstrations.

VHS instruction tapes were sometimes included with various products and services, including exercise equipment, kitchen appliances, and computer software.

VHS was the winner of a protracted and somewhat bitter format war during the late s and early s against Sony's Betamax format as well as other formats of the time.

Betamax was widely perceived at the time as the better format, as the cassette was smaller in size, and Betamax offered slightly better video quality than VHS — it had lower video noise, less luma-chroma crosstalk , and was marketed as providing pictures superior to those of VHS.

However, the sticking point for both consumers and potential licensing partners of Betamax was the total recording time.

Very high-end Betamax machines still supported recording in the Beta I mode and some in an even higher resolution Beta Is Beta I Super HiBand mode, but at a maximum single-cassette run time of [with an L cassette].

Because Betamax was released more than a year before VHS, it held an early lead in the format war.

However, by , United States' Betamax sales had dipped to only percent of all sales. Some, including Sony's founder Akio Morita, say that it was due to Sony's licensing strategy with other manufacturers, which consistently kept the overall cost for a unit higher than a VHS unit, and that JVC allowed other manufacturers to produce VHS units license-free, thereby keeping costs lower.

The video cassette recorder was a mainstay in television -equipped American and European living rooms for more than twenty years from its introduction in The home television recording market, as well as the camcorder market, has since transitioned to digital recording on solid-state memory cards.

Though In the mids, several retail chains in the United States and Europe announced they would stop selling VHS equipment.

The last known company in the world to manufacture VHS equipment was Funai of Japan, who produced video cassette recorders under the Sanyo brand in China and North America.

For other uses, see VHS disambiguation. Consumer-level analog video tape recording and cassette form factor standard. This article needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

Further information: Video tape recorder. Play media. Main article: VHS-C. Main article: Digital-S. Main article: Videotape format war.

This section has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages.

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. April The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject.

You may improve this section , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new section, as appropriate.

July Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: Video CD. See also: DVD-Video. See also: Digital video recorder. Page cites the original name as "Video Home System", from the original source, an article by Yuma Shiraishi, one of its inventors.

New long-play video-cassette recorders". Popular Science. Times Mirror Magazine inc. Retrieved July 11, Retrieved University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.

Archived from the original on July 22, Retrieved November 11, The Washington Post. August 28, The Los Angeles Times. The Washington Times.

Washington, D. June 20, Ars Technica. Archived from the original on CED Magic. Albert Abramson. Archived from the original on August 13, The New York Times.

September 7, Screen Society. Citadel Press Books. Retrieved October 6, Principles of Multimedia. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. Archived from the original on January 11, August 23, Archived from the original on February 25, Oxford Handbooks, Dec.

September 30, What is the format? Retrieved 2 March Retrieved February 10, New Scientist. The Free Lance-Star.

Associated Press. December 14, The pre-color timings are quoted here for simplicity. DVD demystified. McGraw-Hill Professional. Retrieved January 22, Is Beta Hi-Fi sound perfect?

Retrieved August 6, Newnes Guide to Television and Video Technology. InfoWorld, May 26, January 7, Retrieved January 19, Retrieved August 10, Retrieved August 20, Archived from the original on July 2, January 8, Retrieved 10 April Washington Times.

BBC News. November 22, Retrieved January 6, Retrieved May 27, June 13, September 15, Retrieved April 8, Retrieved April 5, Archived from the original on September 19, Retrieved October 31, January 29, Retrieved December 30, March 21, Museum of Arts and Design.

Retrieved August 5, New York Times. The New Yorker. Yale Daily News. Onion Inc. American Libraries Magazine. American Library Association.

This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. March Video storage formats. P2 SxS MicroP2

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