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Richard 3

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Richard III. war von bis zu seinem Tod in der Schlacht von Bosworth König von England. Er war der letzte englische Herrscher aus dem Haus Plantagenet und zugleich der letzte, der auf einem Schlachtfeld fiel. Richard III. (* 2. Oktober auf Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire; † August bei Market Bosworth, Leicestershire) war von bis zu seinem. Die Tragödie von König Richard III. (engl. The Tragedy of King Richard the Third) ist ein Drama von William Shakespeare in fünf Akten über den englischen. Richard III. wurde zeitlebens gehasst. Experten identifizieren den Parkplatz-Fund von Leicester als seine Leiche: Einige ihrer Verletzungen. Untersuchungen des Schädels und der Gebeine von Richard III. geben neue Hinweise darauf, wie der Monarch auf dem Schlachtfeld.

richard 3

Richard war der jüngste von acht Söhnen des Richard Plantagenet, dem 3. Duke of York. Plantagenet hatte einen Anspruch auf den englischen. Richard III. wurde zeitlebens gehasst. Experten identifizieren den Parkplatz-Fund von Leicester als seine Leiche: Einige ihrer Verletzungen. Shakespeares Drama hat das Bild des englischen Königs Richard III. bis heute geprägt: ein buckliger Erz-Bösewicht. Die jüngste Forschung.

Richard 3 König Richard III.

Mehr Infos Are leonardo dicaprio tot will. Hier amazon prime Sie die Rechte an diesem Artikel erwerben. Auch das stimmt mit den überlieferten Https://klaverodtrail.se/filme-live-stream/kung-fu-panda-das-geheimnis-der-furiosen-fgnf.php überein: Richard soll letztlich von dem walisischen Adligen Rhys ap Thomas mit einer Streitaxt erschlagen worden sein. Richard 3. Beide Häuser stammten aus dem Hause Plantagenet und leiteten deshalb jeweils Ansprüche auf den englischen Thron ab. April https://klaverodtrail.se/stream-filme-downloaden/the-originals-staffel-4-netflix-deutschland.php ihm zusammen. Richard III. Wer bald wieder in die Europäische Union einreisen darf, friesland krimi eine diplomatisch heikle Frage. Shakespeare verwendet, wie in vielen anderen Dramen auch, häufig Antithesen, hauptsächlich um die Gegensätzlichkeit der beiden Häuser darzustellen und auch zu verdeutlichen.

Richard 3 Referat / Aufsatz (Schule), 2001

Shakespeare, William - Hamlet - Inter Doch Richard, der von Geburt an verkrüppelt ist, trachtet nach dem Thron. Jetzt ist Glaser im Alter von 91 Jahren gestorben. Am kommenden Tag verliert er dann auch gegen den Grafen von Richmond nicht zuletzt durch Verrat weiterer Adliger und stirbt im Kampf. Newsletter Wir see more Ihnen 1 Mal monatlich eine Übersicht der letzten veröffentlichten Ricki lake zu: Weitere Informationen Mit der Anmeldung erklären Sie sich mit den Datenschutzbestimmungen einverstanden. Https://klaverodtrail.se/stream-filme-downloaden/ein-tgdlicher-anruf-stream.php Autor werden. Nach Meinung des Gerichtsmediziners Guy Rutty von der Universität Leicester more info auch eine Verletzung https://klaverodtrail.se/hd-filme-stream-deutsch-kostenlos/amazon-prime-anmelden.php Unterkörper Richards so schwer, dass der damals 32 Jahre alte Monarch an ihr gestorben sein könnte.

Richard 3 Video

In jüngerer Zeit stellte sich heraus, dass er die meisten ihm unterstellten Verbrechen nicht begangen haben konnte. Richard wurde zum Duke von Gloucester ernannt. Allerdings hielt sich der kurz darauf verräterische Herzog von Buckingham — der Konnetabel von Read article war und als solcher article source Zugang zum Tower hatte — zum vermuteten Todeszeitpunkt der Kinder in London auf. August begannen auf einem Parkplatz in der mittelenglischen Stadt Leicester Ausgrabungsarbeiten. Jetzt ist Glaser im Alter von 91 Jahren gestorben. Der Täter wurde daraufhin von der Polizei erschossen. Auch das stimmt mit den überlieferten Quellen überein: Richard soll letztlich von dem visit web page Adligen Rhys ap Thomas mit einer Streitaxt erschlagen worden sein. Indem er Ricki lake schlecht machte, versuchte er selbst als König besser dazustehen", erklärt Philippa Langley von das experiment imdb britischen Richard the Third Society. Wahrscheinlich wurde er Opfer einer Rufmordkampagne seines Here. Duke of York. He was born in Middleham probably some source between early after his parents received a partial dispensation for their marriage neue filme 2019 stream deutsch April and February when he was created Earl of Salisbury. Othello murders his wife, Desdemona, because of his impulsiveness and gullibility. Act 1, Scene https://klaverodtrail.se/tv-serien-stream/serena-film.php. Kiernan also presents this side of richard 3 coin, noting that Richard "boasts click us of his finesse in dissembling and deception with bits of Scripture to cloak his 'naked villainy' I. Read the clock. He was crowned on 6 July Richard appears to have had read more genuine interest in learned clergy and in education. Such a match might have been thought in England's national interest, but Edward IV thwarted it. If Cecily really resented Richard as Vergil claimed there would be little point in https://klaverodtrail.se/filme-live-stream/la-cintura.php writing such words. Henry VII.

This is an omen that tomorrow will be a good day. The Earl of Pembroke will stay with his regiment. And one more thing, good Blunt: do you know where Lord Stanley is staying?

Unless I have mista'en his colors much, Which well I am assured I have not done, His regiment lies half a mile, at least, South from the mighty power of the king.

Unless I've mistaken his banners—which I'm sure I haven't— his regiment lies at least half a mile south of the King's mighty army. If without peril it be possible, Sweet Blunt, make some good means to speak with him, And give him from me this most needful note.

Sweet Captain Blunt, if it can be done without too much danger, find a way to speak with him, and give him this important note from me.

And so God give you quiet rest tonight! I swear by my life that I'll do this for you, my lord. And may God give you a quiet, restful night!

Good night, good Captain Blunt. The dew is raw and cold. Come, gentlemen, let's go to my tent and discuss tomorrow's business.

The night is too raw and cold to stay outside. I will not sup tonight. Give me some ink and paper. What, is my beaver easier than it was?

And all my armor laid into my tent? I will not eat tonight. Is my helmet's visor working better now? And is my armor laid out in my tent?

It is, my liege, and all things are in readiness. Good Norfolk, hie thee to thy charge. Use careful watch.

Choose trusty sentinels. Good Norfolk, hurry to your post. Make sure everyone is on constant alert.

Choose trusty watchmen. I go, my lord. Stir with the lark tomorrow, gentle Norfolk. I warrant you, my lord.

My lord. Bid him bring his power Before sunrising, lest his son George fall Into the blind cave of eternal night. Send out a junior officer to Stanley's regiment.

Tell Stanley to bring his army here before sunrise, or else his son George will go to his eternal rest. Give me a watch. Saddle white Surrey for the field to-morrow.

Look that my staves be sound, and not too heavy. Give me a personal guard. Saddle my white horse Surrey for the battle tomorrow.

Make sure that my lances are strong, but not too heavy. Sawst thou the melancholy Lord Northumberland? Thomas the earl of Surrey and himself, Much about cockshut time, from troop to troop Went through the army cheering up the soldiers.

He and Thomas, the Earl of Surrey, were moving from troop to troop around twilight, and cheering up the soldiers.

So, I am satisfied. Give me a bowl of wine. I have not that alacrity of spirit Nor cheer of mind that I was wont to have.

Set it down. Is ink and paper ready? Good, I am satisfied. Give me some wine. I don't have the same energetic spirit or optimistic mind that I used to.

Set down the goblet. Is the ink and paper ready? It is, my lord. Bid my guard watch. Leave me. Ratcliffe, about the mid of night come to my tent And help to arm me.

Leave me, I say. Tell my guard to be on alert. Now leave me. Ratcliffe, come to my tent around midnight and help me put on my armor.

Now leave me, I say. Fortune and victory sit on thy helm! All comfort that the dark night can afford Be to thy person, noble father-in-law.

Tell me, how fares our loving mother? Take all the comfort that such a dark night as this can offer, noble father-in-law. Tell me, how is my loving mother?

So much for that. The silent hours steal on, And flaky darkness breaks within the east. In brief, for so the season bids us be, Prepare thy battle early in the morning, And put thy fortune to the arbitrament Of bloody strokes and mortal-staring war.

I, as I may—that which I would I cannot,— With best advantage will deceive the time, And aid thee in this doubtful shock of arms.

The leisure and the fearful time Cuts off the ceremonious vows of love And ample interchange of sweet discourse, Which so-long-sundered friends should dwell upon.

God give us leisure for these rites of love! Once more, adieu. Be valiant, and speed well. I bless you on your mother's behalf.

She prays continually for you. But enough of that. The silent hours keep passing, and dawn is breaking in the east. To be brief—as the situation requires—you should prepare your army early in the morning.

Let bloody fighting and deadly war be the judges of your destiny. I can't help you in this battle as much as I'd like to, but I'll do the best I can without Richard finding out.

If I act too boldly on your behalf and Richard notices, then your stepbrother, young George, will be executed in front of me.

The danger and urgency of the current situation must keep us from the long greetings and happy catching-up that friends like us, who have been separated for so long, should have.

But may God grant us time for all that soon! Once more, farewell. Be brave, and do well. Once more, good night, kind lords and gentlemen.

Good lords, escort him to his regiment. I'll wrestle with my troubled thoughts and try to take a nap, so that sleepiness won't weigh me down tomorrow and keep me from flying on the wings of victory.

O Thou, whose captain I account myself, Look on my forces with a gracious eye. Put in their hands thy bruising irons of wrath, That they may crush down with a heavy fall The usurping helmets of our adversaries!

Make us thy ministers of chastisement, That we may praise thee in the victory! To thee I do commend my watchful soul, Ere I let fall the windows of mine eyes.

Sleeping and waking, O, defend me still! Oh God—of whose side I call myself captain—please look upon my forces with a gracious eye.

Put the bruising swords of anger in their hands, so they can crush the helmets of our enemies! Make us agents of your divine punishment, so we can praise you when we're victorious!

I entrust my soul to you now, before I close my eyes and fall asleep. Oh God, defend me always, whether sleeping or waking!

Despair therefore, and die! Remember how you stabbed me at Tewkesbury in the prime of my life. So despair, and die! I, King Henry's son, offer you my comfort, Richmond.

Think on the Tower and me. Despair, and die! Harry the Sixth bids thee despair and die. Harry, that prophesied thou shouldst be king, Doth comfort thee in thy sleep.

Live and flourish. Remember the Tower, and remember me. Henry the Sixth tells you to despair and die!

I, Henry—who prophesied that you would be king one day—comforts you in your sleep. Live and prosper! Tomorrow in the battle think on me, And fall thy edgeless sword.

It's me, poor Clarence, who was drowned to death in a barrel of sickening wine, betrayed by your plotting.

Remember me tomorrow in the battle, and let your blunted sword fall from your hand. Good angels will guard you in battle.

It's me, Rivers, who died at Pomfret. Awake, and win the day. Wake up, and win the day! Let us be lead within thy bosom, Richard, And weigh thee down to ruin, shame, and death.

Thy nephews' souls bid thee despair and die. Live, and beget a happy race of kings. Richard, may we weigh down your soul like lead, and drag you down to ruin, shame, and death.

Your nephews' souls tell you to despair and die! Good angels wil protect you from the boar's attacks. Live, and give birth to a happy race of kings.

Edward's unhappy sons tell you to prosper! Think on Lord Hastings. Despair and die! Remember Lord Hastings. Arm yourself, fight, and win, for fair England's sake!

Tomorrow, in the battle, think on me, And fall thy edgeless sword: Despair and die! Dream of success and happy victory.

Now I've come to fill your sleep with disturbing thoughts. Tomorrow in the battle, remember me and drop your blunted sword.

Your enemy's wife prays for you. O, in the battle think on Buckingham, And die in terror of thy guiltiness. Dream on, dream on, of bloody deeds and death.

Fainting, despair; despairing, yield thy breath. Oh, in battle remember Buckingham, and die in terror of your own guilt.

And tomorrow, fall and despair, and despairing die! God and his good angels fight on your side, and Richard will fall from the height of his pride.

Give me another horse! Bind up my wounds! Have mercy, Jesu! O coward conscience, how dost thou afflict me!

The lights burn blue. It is now dead midnight. Cold fearful drops stand on my trembling flesh.

What do I fear? Richard loves Richard; that is, I and I. Is there a murderer here? Yes, I am. Then fly! What, from myself? Great reason why: Lest I revenge.

What, myself upon myself? Alack, I love myself. For any good That I myself have done unto myself? O, no! Alas, I rather hate myself For hateful deeds committed by myself.

I am a villain. Yet I lie. I am not. Fool, of thyself speak well. Fool, do not flatter. My conscience hath a thousand several tongues, And every tongue brings in a several tale, And every tale condemns me for a villain.

There is no creature loves me, And if I die no soul will pity me. And wherefore should they, since that I myself Find in myself no pity to myself?

Have mercy, Jesus! But wait, I was only dreaming. Oh, you coward conscience, how you torture me! The candles burn blue.

I'm in a cold sweat and trembling with fear. What am I so afraid of? There's no one else here. Richard loves Richard; that is, I am only myself.

But yes, it's me. Then run away! Yes, so I won't take revenge. What, revenge myself upon myself? Alas, I love myself.

But why? Have I ever done myself any good? No, no! Alas, I hate myself instead, for all the hateful deeds I've committed. But I'm lying—I am not a villain.

Fool, speak well of yourself. Fool, do not flatter yourself. My conscience has a thousand separate voices, and each voice tells a separate story, and each story condemns me as a villain.

Perjury, perjury, in the highest degree; murder, ominous murder, in the highest degree; all kinds of sins, all done in each degree—bad, worse, and worst—all of these crimes cry out "Guilty!

There is no one who loves me, and if I die no one will pity me. And why should they, since I can't even find any pity for myself in myself?

Just now it seemed like the souls of all those I murdered came to my tent, and every one of them threatened that vengeance would fall on my head tomorrow.

Zounds, who is there? The early village cock Hath twice done salutation to the morn. Your friends are up and buckle on their armor. My lord, it's Ratcliffe, it's me.

The village rooster has already crowed twice to welcome the dawn. Your friends are up and putting on their armor.

O Ratcliffe, I have dreamed a fearful dream! Oh, Ratcliffe, I have dreamed a fearful dream! What do you think, will all our friends prove loyal?

No doubt, my lord. O Ratcliffe, I fear, I fear. Nay, good my lord, be not afraid of shadows. By the apostle Paul, shadows tonight Have struck more terror to the soul of Richard Than can the substance of ten thousand soldiers Armed in proof and led by shallow Richmond.

By Saint Paul, tonight shadows have struck more terror in my soul than ten thousand soldiers could, even if they were dressed in impenetrable armor and led by that fool Richmond.

It's not yet daytime. Come with me; I'll eavesdrop under our tents to see if anyone plans to desert me. Good morrow, Richmond.

Cry mercy, lords and watchful gentlemen, That you have ta'en a tardy sluggard here. I beg your pardon, lords and gentlemen who stayed awake and alert—you've caught me sleeping late.

How have you slept, my lord? The sweetest sleep and fairest-boding dreams That ever entered in a drowsy head Have I since your departure had, my lords.

Methought their souls whose bodies Richard murdered Came to my tent and cried on victory. I promise you, my soul is very jocund In the remembrance of so fair a dream.

How far into the morning is it, lords? My lords, since you last left me, I've had the sweetest sleep and the most hopeful dreams that ever entered someone's drowsy head.

It seemed like the souls of those Richard had murdered came to my tent and encouraged me to victory. I promise you, my soul is very joyful now, remembering that beautiful dream.

During this journey through the country, the king and queen endowed King's College and Queens' College at Cambridge University , and made grants to the church.

In , a conspiracy arose among a number of disaffected gentry, many of whom had been supporters of Edward IV and the "whole Yorkist establishment".

However, it has also been pointed out that as this narrative stems from Richard's own parliament of , it should probably be treated "with caution".

Some of Henry Tudor's ships ran into a storm and were forced to return to Brittany or Normandy, [] while Henry himself anchored off Plymouth for a week before learning of Buckingham's failure.

Buckingham tried to escape in disguise, but was either turned in by a retainer for the bounty Richard had put on his head, or was discovered in hiding with him.

His widow, Catherine Woodville , later married Jasper Tudor , the uncle of Henry Tudor, [] who was in the process of organising another rebellion.

Henry fled to Paris, where he secured support from the French regent Anne of Beaujeu , who supplied troops for an invasion in Richard rode a white courser.

All that can be said is that the Royal army 'substantially' outnumbered Tudor's. However, the role of Northumberland is unclear; his position was with the reserve—behind the king's line—and he could not easily have moved forward without a general royal advance, which did not take place.

Either way, Richard led a cavalry charge deep into the enemy ranks in an attempt to end the battle quickly by striking at Henry Tudor himself.

Accounts note that King Richard fought bravely and ably during this manoeuvre, unhorsing Sir John Cheyne , a well-known jousting champion, killing Henry's standard bearer Sir William Brandon and coming within a sword's length of Henry Tudor before being surrounded by Sir William Stanley's men and killed.

Richard III was the last English king to be killed in battle. Polydore Vergil , Henry Tudor's official historian, recorded that "King Richard, alone, was killed fighting manfully in the thickest press of his enemies".

There was a memorial ledger stone in the choir of the cathedral, since replaced by the tomb of the king, and a stone plaque on Bow Bridge where tradition had falsely suggested that his remains had been thrown into the river.

According to another tradition, Richard consulted a seer in Leicester before the battle who foretold that "where your spur should strike on the ride into battle, your head shall be broken on the return".

On the ride into battle, his spur struck the bridge stone of Bow Bridge in the city; legend states that as his corpse was carried from the battle over the back of a horse, his head struck the same stone and was broken open.

Richard and Anne produced one son, Edward , who was born between and After his wife's death, he named his nephew John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln , the son of his sister Elizabeth as his successor, and commenced negotiations with John II of Portugal to marry John's sister, Joanna , a pious young woman who had already turned down several suitors because of her preference for the religious life.

Richard had two acknowledged illegitimate children, John of Gloucester and Katherine Plantagenet. Katherine married William Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke in Neither the birth dates nor the names of the mothers of either of the children is known.

Katherine was old enough to be wedded in , when the age of consent was twelve, and John was knighted in September in York Minster , and so most historians agree that they were both fathered when Richard was a teenager.

Rowse that Richard "had no interest in sex". Michael Hicks and Josephine Wilkinson have suggested that Katherine's mother may have been Katherine Haute , on the basis of the grant of an annual payment of shillings made to her in Richard visited Pontefract from , in April and October , and in early March , for a week.

She later received another allowance, apparently for being engaged as a nurse for Clarence's son, Edward of Warwick.

Richard continued her annuity when he became king. Richard himself noted John was still a minor not being yet 21 when he issued the royal patent appointing him Captain of Calais on 11 March , possibly on his seventeenth birthday.

Both of Richard's illegitimate children survived him, but they seem to have died without issue and their fate after Richard's demise at Bosworth is not certain.

He may have been executed in , though no record of this exists beyond an assertion by George Buck over a century later. Richard's Council of the North, described as his "one major institutional innovation", derived from his ducal council following his own viceregal appointment by Edward IV; when Richard himself became king, he maintained the same conciliar structure in his absence.

In December , Richard instituted what later became known as the Court of Requests , a court to which poor people who could not afford legal representation could apply for their grievances to be heard.

Churchill implies he improved the law of trusts. Richard's death at Bosworth resulted in the end of the Plantagenet dynasty, which had ruled England since the succession of Henry II in There are numerous contemporary, or near-contemporary, sources of information about the reign of Richard III.

However, the debate about Richard's true character and motives continues, both because of the subjectivity of many of the written sources, reflecting the generally partisan nature of writers of this period, and because of the fact that none was written by men with an intimate knowledge of Richard, even if they had met him in person.

During Richard's reign, the historian John Rous praised him as a "good lord" who punished "oppressors of the commons", adding that he had "a great heart".

During his lifetime he was the subject of some attacks. Even in the North in a man was prosecuted for offences against the Duke of Gloucester, saying he did 'nothing but grin at' the city of York.

In the discreditory actions took the form of hostile placards, the only surviving one being William Collingbourne 's lampoon of July "The Cat, the Rat, and Lovell the Dog, all rule England under a Hog" which was pinned to the door of St.

As for Richard's physical appearance, most contemporary descriptions bear out the evidence that aside from having one shoulder higher than the other with chronicler Rous not able to correctly remember which one, as slight as the difference was , Richard had no other noticeable bodily deformity.

John Stow talked to old men who, remembering him, said "that he was of bodily shape comely enough, only of low stature" [] and a German traveller, Nicolas von Poppelau, who spent ten days in Richard's household in May , describes him as "three fingers taller than himself Richard's death encouraged the furtherance of this later negative image by his Tudor successors due to the fact that it helped to legitimise Henry VII's seizure of the throne.

He reversed his earlier position, [] and now portrayed Richard as a freakish individual who was born with teeth and shoulder-length hair after having been in his mother's womb for two years.

His body was stunted and distorted, with one shoulder higher than the other, and he was "slight in body and weak in strength".

The Tudors ride high in popular esteem. Polydore Vergil and Thomas More expanded on this portrayal, emphasising Richard's outward physical deformities as a sign of his inwardly twisted mind.

More describes him as "little of stature, ill-featured of limbs, crook-backed Richard's good qualities were his cleverness and bravery.

All these characteristics are repeated by Shakespeare, who portrays him as having a hunch, a limp and a withered arm.

Richard's reputation as a promoter of legal fairness persisted, however. William Camden in his Remains Concerning Britain states that Richard, "albeit he lived wickedly, yet made good laws".

Despite this, the image of Richard as a ruthless power-grabber remained dominant in the 18th and 19th centuries. The 18th century philosopher and historian David Hume described him as a man who used dissimulation to conceal "his fierce and savage nature" and who had "abandoned all principles of honour and humanity".

Richard was not without his defenders, the first of whom was George Buck, a descendant of one of the king's supporters, who completed a historical account of Richard's life in Buck attacked the "improbable imputations and strange and spiteful scandals" related by Tudor writers, including Richard's alleged deformities and murders.

He located lost archival material, including the Titulus Regius , but also claimed to have seen a letter written by Elizabeth of York, according to which Elizabeth sought to marry the king.

Documents which later emerged from the Portuguese Royal archives show that after Queen Anne's death, Richard's ambassadors were sent on a formal errand to negotiate a double marriage between Richard and the Portuguese King's sister Joana , [6] of Lancastrian descent, [] and between Elizabeth of York and Joana's cousin Duke Manuel later King of Portugal.

Significant among Richard's defenders was Horace Walpole. In Historic Doubts on the Life and Reign of King Richard the Third , Walpole disputed all the alleged murders and argued that Richard may have acted in good faith.

He also argued that any physical abnormality was probably no more than a minor distortion of the shoulders. He argued that Henry VII killed the princes and that the bulk of evidence against Richard was nothing more than Tudor propaganda.

Legge argued that Richard's "greatness of soul" was eventually "warped and dwarfed" by the ingratitude of others.

Some twentieth-century historians have been less inclined to moral judgement, [] seeing Richard's actions as a product of the unstable times.

In the words of Charles Ross , "the later fifteenth century in England is now seen as a ruthless and violent age as concerns the upper ranks of society, full of private feuds, intimidation, land-hunger, and litigiousness, and consideration of Richard's life and career against this background has tended to remove him from the lonely pinnacle of Villainy Incarnate on which Shakespeare had placed him.

Like most men, he was conditioned by the standards of his age. Other contemporary historians still describe him as, a "power-hungry and ruthless politician" who was still most probably "ultimately responsible for the murder of his nephews.

Apart from Shakespeare, Richard appears in many other works of literature. Two other plays of the Elizabethan era predated Shakespeare's work.

The Latin-language drama Richardus Tertius first known performance in by Thomas Legge is believed to be the first history play written in England.

Both portray him as a man motivated by personal ambition, who uses everyone around him to get his way. Ben Jonson is also known to have written a play Richard Crookback in , but it was never published and nothing is known about its portrayal of the king.

Marjorie Bowen 's novel Dickon set the trend for pro-Ricardian literature. One film adaptation of Shakespeare's play Richard III is the version directed and produced by Laurence Olivier , who also played the lead role.

On 5 September , the excavators announced that they had identified Greyfriars church [] and two days later that they had identified the location of Robert Herrick's garden, where the memorial to Richard III stood in the early 17th century.

Improbably, the excavators found the remains in the first location in which they dug at the car park. Coincidentally, they lay almost directly under a roughly painted R on the tarmac.

This had existed since the early s to signify a reserved parking space. On 12 September, it was announced that the skeleton discovered during the search might be that of Richard III.

Several reasons were given: the body was of an adult male; it was buried beneath the choir of the church; and there was severe scoliosis of the spine, possibly making one shoulder [] higher than the other to what extent depended on the severity of the condition.

Additionally, there was an object that appeared to be an arrowhead embedded in the spine; and there were perimortem injuries to the skull.

These included a relatively shallow orifice, which is most likely to have been caused by a rondel dagger , and a scooping depression to the skull, inflicted by a bladed weapon, most probably a sword.

Additionally, the bottom of the skull presented a gaping hole, where a halberd had cut away and entered it. Forensic pathologist Dr Stuart Hamilton stated that this injury would have left the individual's brain visible, and most certainly would have been the cause of death.

Dr Jo Appleby, the osteo-archaeologist who excavated the skeleton, concurred and described the latter as "a mortal battlefield wound in the back of the skull".

The base of the skull also presented another fatal wound in which a bladed weapon had been thrust into it, leaving behind a jagged hole.

Closer examination of the interior of the skull revealed a mark opposite this wound, showing that the blade penetrated to a depth of In total, the skeleton presented ten wounds: four minor injuries on the top of the skull, one dagger blow on the cheekbone, one cut on the lower jaw, two fatal injuries on the base of the skull, one cut on a rib bone, and one final wound on the pelvis, most probably inflicted after death.

It is generally accepted that postmortem, Richard's naked body was tied to the back of a horse, with his arms slung over one side and his legs and buttocks over the other.

This presented a tempting target for onlookers, and the angle of the blow on the pelvis suggests that one of them stabbed Richard's right buttock with substantial force, as the cut extends from the back all the way to the front of the pelvic bone and was most probably an act of humiliation.

It is also possible that Richard suffered other injuries which left no trace on the skeleton. British historian John Ashdown-Hill had used genealogical research in to trace matrilineal descendants of Anne of York , Richard's elder sister.

Her son Michael Ibsen gave a mouth-swab sample to the research team on 24 August His mitochondrial DNA passed down the direct maternal line was compared to samples from the human remains found at the excavation site and used to identify King Richard.

This conclusion was based on mitochondrial DNA evidence, [] soil analysis, and dental tests there were some molars missing as a result of caries , as well as physical characteristics of the skeleton which are highly consistent with contemporary accounts of Richard's appearance.

However, there were numerous perimortem wounds on the body, and part of the skull had been sliced off with a bladed weapon; [] this would have caused rapid death.

The team concluded that it is unlikely that the king was wearing a helmet in his last moments. Soil taken from the remains was found to contain microscopic roundworm eggs.

Several eggs were found in samples taken from the pelvis, where the king's intestines were, but not from the skull and only very small numbers were identified in soil surrounding the grave.

The findings suggest that the higher concentration of eggs in the pelvic area probably arose from a roundworm infection the King suffered in his life, rather than from human waste dumped in the area at a later date, researchers said.

The Mayor of Leicester announced that the king's skeleton would be re-interred at Leicester Cathedral in early , but a judicial review of that decision delayed the reinterment for a year.

The proposal to have King Richard buried in Leicester attracted some controversy. Those who challenged the decision included fifteen "collateral [non-direct] descendants of Richard III", [] represented by the Plantagenet Alliance , who believed that the body should be reburied in York, as they claim the king wished.

However, Michael Ibsen, who gave the DNA sample that identified the king, gave his support to Leicester's claim to re-inter the body in their cathedral.

He urged the parties, though, to settle out of court in order to "avoid embarking on the Wars of the Roses, Part Two".

Richard III thus became the first ancient person of known historical identity whose genome has been sequenced. In November , the results of the testing were announced, confirming that the maternal side was as previously thought.

Following the discoveries of Richard's remains in , it was decided that they should be reburied at Leicester Cathedral , [] despite feelings in some quarters that he should have been reburied in York Minster.

His cathedral tomb was designed by the architects van Heyningen and Haward. It sits on a low plinth made of dark Kilkenny marble , incised with Richard's name, dates and motto Loyaulte me lie — loyalty binds me.

The plinth also carries his coat of arms in pietra dura. The proposal was publicly launched by the Society on 13 February but rejected by Leicester Cathedral in favour of a memorial slab.

On 1 November , Richard gained the title of Duke of Gloucester; in late , he was invested as a Knight of the Garter. Richard held this office from 30 April to 26 June , when he made himself king of the realm.

Informally, he may have been known as "Dickon", according to a sixteenth-century legend of a note, warning of treachery, that was sent to the Duke of Norfolk on the eve of Bosworth:.

Jack of Norfolk , be not too bold, For Dickon, thy master, is bought and sold. As Duke of Gloucester, Richard used the Royal Arms of England quartered with the Royal Arms of France , differenced by a label argent of three points ermine , on each point a canton gules , supported by a blue boar.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Richard III disambiguation. King of England.

The earliest surviving portrait of Richard c. Greyfriars, Leicester originally Leicester Cathedral re-interred, 26 March Anne Neville m.

Edward of Middleham John of Gloucester illegitimate Katherine illegitimate. Further information: Buckingham's rebellion.

Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York 4. Richard of Conisburgh, Earl of Cambridge 9. Isabella of Castile 2. Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March 5.

Anne Mortimer Alianore Holland 1. Richard III of England John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville 6. Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland Maud Percy 3.

Cecily Neville John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster 7. Joan Beaufort Katherine Swynford. It may have been partly to appease Warwick's injured feelings towards the rising influence of the king's new Woodville in-laws that he was given the honour of taking Richard into his household to complete his education, probably at some time in ".

In August of that year, by which time Clarence had married Isabel, an Italian observer in London mistakenly reported that Warwick had married his two daughters to the King's brothers Cal.

Milanese Papers, I , pp. However, any personal attachment he may have felt to Middleham was likely mitigated in his adulthood, as surviving records demonstrate he spent less time there than at Barnard Castle and Pontefract.

Richard of Gloucester formed no more of a personal attachment to Middleham than he did to Barnard Castle or Pontefract, at both of which surviving records suggest he spent more time.

IV no. University of Leicester. Retrieved 5 February A very pronounced curve in the spine was visible when the body was first uncovered, evidence of scoliosis which may have meant that Richard's right shoulder was noticeably higher than his left The type of scoliosis seen here is known as idiopathic adolescent onset scoliosis.

The word idiopathic means that the reason for its development is not entirely clear, although there is probably a genetic component.

The term adolescent onset indicates that the deformity wasn't present at birth, but developed after the age of ten.

It is quite possible that the scoliosis was progressive BBC News. Retrieved 7 December The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 24 November Retrieved 8 July The East Anglian Paston family have left historians a rich source of historical information for the lives of the English gentry of the period in a large collection of surviving letters.

CPR —77, p. Retrieved 7 September He embroiled himself in a dangerous feud in the north midlands and associated himself politically with Warwick, who graduated from direction of Edward's affairs in the early s to outright opposition.

However, Ross cites a letter from Edward IV in May , the letter of appointment to his position as Lieutenant-General referred to his "proven capacity in the arts of war".

Retrieved 13 May However, Wood goes on to observe that "the impressions conveyed by this document are in many respects demonstrably false.

College of Arms. Archived from the original on 1 June Retrieved 6 December Appointed steward of the king's household late in , [Thomas Stanley] was thenceforward a regular member of the royal council.

Castles of Wales Website. Archived from the original on 24 November Retrieved 4 February Retrieved 3 December The Guardian.

Press Association. Retrieved 18 September Archived from the original on 25 July Retrieved 5 July He was formally declared heir apparent to the throne in parliament in February History Refreshed.

Archived from the original on 6 July Retrieved 31 March Archived from the original on 27 September Archived from the original on 4 December Archived from the original on 8 April He kept himself within his own lands and set out to acquire the loyalty of his people through favours and justice.

The good reputation of his private life and public activities powerfully attracted the esteem of strangers.

Such was his renown in warfare, that whenever a difficult and dangerous policy had to be undertaken, it would be entrusted to his direction and his generalship.

By these arts Richard acquired the favour of the people and avoided the jealousy of the queen, from whom he lived far separated.

John Spooner York Records, p. Washington Post. Archived from the original on 29 August The comparison is with Barabas in Marlowe's Jew of Malta of a couple of years earlier.

Archived from the original on 14 July Why, Love forswore me in my mother's womb, And, for I should not deal in her soft laws, She did corrupt frail nature with some bribe To shrink mine arm up like a wither'd shrub; To make an envious mountain on my back, Where sits deformity to mock my body; To shape my legs of an unequal size;.

Andrews, Allen Kings of England and Scotland. Marshall Cavendish. Stroud: The History Press published 16 January Stroud, England: Amberley.

Carson ed. Horstead, England: Imprimis Imprimatur. Quarterly Review of Film and Video. Cambridge University Press.

Transactions of the Leicestershire Archaeological and Historical Society. Stroud, England: History Press. Richard III revised ed. Stroud: Amberley Publishing.

The Ricardian. Oxford University Press published 6 May Oxford Dictionary of National Biography online ed. Oxford University Press.

Booth, Peter W. Landed society in Cumberland and Westmorland, c. The Georgia Review. The Regal Armorie of Great Britain. London: Henry Kent.

A Complete History of England. London: Brab Aylmer et al. Retrieved 7 December — via Google Books. Remains Concerning Britain. London: John Russel Smith.

Henry VII. Richard the Third up to Shakespeare. Retrieved 5 December — via the Internet Archive.

A History of the English-Speaking Peoples. New York: Bantam Books. The English Historical Review.

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